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Mercury-Atlas 3
Project Mercury
Project Mercury
Mercury-Atlas series ← Mercury-Atlas 2 Mercury-Atlas 4 → MERCURY-ATLAS 3 (MA-3) was an unmanned spaceflight of the Mercury program . It was launched unmanned on April 25, 1961 at 16:15 UTC, from Launch Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral , Florida
Florida
. The Mercury capsule contained a robotic "mechanical astronaut". Mercury spacecraft No. 8 and Atlas No. 8 100-D were used in the mission. The Atlas used for the flight (Missile 100D) incorporated a number of technical improvements including thicker skin to handle the added weight of the Mercury capsule and prevent a recurrence of the Mercury-Atlas 1 failure
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Chrysler
FCA US LLC (also called FIAT CHRYSLER or CHRYSLER) (/ˈkraɪslər/ ) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. , an Italian controlled automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London
London
, U.K., for tax purposes. FCA US is one of the "Big Three " American automobile manufacturers. FCA US has its headquarters in Auburn Hills, Michigan and sells vehicles worldwide under its flagship Chrysler
Chrysler
brand, as well as the Dodge
Dodge
, Jeep
Jeep
, and Ram Trucks . Other major divisions include Mopar , its automotive parts and accessories division, and SRT , its performance automobile division. Walter Chrysler founded CHRYSLER CORPORATION in 1925 from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company
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Convair
CONVAIR was an American aircraft manufacturing company which later expanded into rockets and spacecraft. The company was formed in 1943 by the merger of Consolidated Aircraft
Consolidated Aircraft
and Vultee Aircraft , and went on to produce aircraft such as the Convair B-36 Peacemaker
Convair B-36 Peacemaker
, the F-102 Delta Dagger , the F-106 Delta Dart , the B-58 Hustler bomber, as well as the Convair 880
Convair 880
and Convair 990 jet airliners. It also manufactured the first Atlas rockets, including the rockets that were used for the manned orbital flights of Project Mercury
Project Mercury
. The company's subsequent Atlas-Centaur
Atlas-Centaur
design continued this success and derivatives of the design remain in use as of 2017
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Gene Kranz
EUGENE FRANCIS "GENE" KRANZ (born August 17, 1933) is an American aerospace engineer , retired fighter pilot and a retired NASA Flight Director and manager. Kranz served as a Flight Director, the successor to NASA founding Flight Director Chris Kraft , during the Gemini and Apollo programs, and is best known for his role in directing the successful Mission Control team efforts to save the crew of Apollo 13 , which later became the subject story of a major motion picture of the same name, in which he was portrayed by actor Ed Harris , and serving as flight director during the first lunar landing of Apollo 11 . He is also noted for his trademark close-cut flattop hairstyle, and the wearing of dapper "mission" vests (waistcoats ), of different styles and materials made by his wife, Marta Kranz, during missions for which he acted as Flight Director. A personal friend of the American astronauts of his time, Kranz remains a prominent and colorful figure in the history of U.S
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Atlas Centaur
The ATLAS-CENTAUR was an American expendable launch system derived from the SM-65 Atlas D missile. Launches were conducted from Launch Complex 36 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida . CONTENTS * 1 Early development and testing * 2 Operational launches * 3 Variants * 4 References EARLY DEVELOPMENT AND TESTINGConvair , the manufacturer of the Atlas, developed the Centaur upper stage specifically for that booster, sharing its inflated balloon skin. It was also the first production rocket stage to utilize liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) as propellants. Despite high performance, LH2 nonetheless had problems because it had to be chilled at extremely low temperatures (lower than LOX) and its light molecular density meant that large fuel tanks were needed
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North American Aviation
NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer , responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter , the B-25 Mitchell bomber , the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane , and the XB-70 , as well as Apollo Command and Service Module , the second stage of the Saturn V
Saturn V
rocket , the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
orbiter and the B-1 Lancer . Through a series of mergers and sales, North American Aviation became part of North American Rockwell , which later became Rockwell International and is now part of Boeing
Boeing

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Project Gemini
2: * Gemini 8 * Gemini 9A LAUNCH SITE(S) Cape Kennedy Air Force Station LC-19 VEHICLE INFORMATION VEHICLE TYPE Capsule CREW VEHICLE Gemini CREW CAPACITY 2 LAUNCH VEHICLE(S) * Titan II GLV
Titan II GLV
*
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NASA
The NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/ ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program , as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science . The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958
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Vostok Programme
The VOSTOK PROGRAMME (Russian : Восто́к, IPA: , Orient
Orient
or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely. Competing with the United States Project Mercury
Project Mercury
, it succeeded in placing the first human, Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
, into space, in a single orbit in Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961. The Vostok capsule was developed from the Zenit spy satellite project and adapted the Vostok launch rocket from the existing R-7 Semyorka intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) design. The name "Vostok" was treated as classified information until Gagarin's flight was first publicly disclosed to the world press. The programme carried out six manned spaceflights between 1961 and 1963. The longest flight lasted nearly five days, and the last four were launched in pairs, one day apart
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Apollo Program
The APOLLO PROGRAM, also known as PROJECT APOLLO, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972. First conceived during Dwight D. Eisenhower\'s administration as a three-man spacecraft to follow the one-man Project Mercury which put the first Americans in space, Apollo was later dedicated to President John F. Kennedy 's national goal of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" by the end of the 1960s, which he proposed in an address to Congress on May 25, 1961
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Vacuum Tube
In electronics , a VACUUM TUBE, an ELECTRON TUBE, or just a TUBE (North America), or VALVE (Britain and some other regions), is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a THERMIONIC TUBE or THERMIONIC VALVE. A phototube , however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect . Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases , usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode , contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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Space Race
The SPACE RACE refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War
Cold War
rivals, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR) and the United States
United States
(US), for supremacy in spaceflight capability. It had its origins in the missile -based nuclear arms race between the two nations that occurred following World War II
World War II
, aided by captured German missile technology and personnel from the Aggregat program . The technological superiority required for such supremacy was seen as necessary for national security, and symbolic of ideological superiority. The Space Race spawned pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites , uncrewed space probes of the Moon
Moon
, Venus
Venus
, and Mars
Mars
, and human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and to the Moon
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John Glenn
JOHN HERSCHEL GLENN JR. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
aviator , engineer , astronaut , and United States Senator from Ohio
Ohio
. In 1962 he was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times. Before joining NASA
NASA
, Glenn was a distinguished fighter pilot in World War II
World War II
and Korea with six Distinguished Flying Crosses and eighteen Air Medals . He was one of the Mercury Seven
Mercury Seven
, military test pilots selected in 1959 by NASA
NASA
as the United States' first astronauts. On February 20, 1962, Glenn flew the Friendship 7 mission; the first American to orbit the Earth, he was the fifth person in space. He received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1962 and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.S
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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION (CCAFS) (known as CAPE KENNEDY AIR FORCE STATION from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command
's 45th Space Wing . CCAFS is headquartered at the nearby Patrick Air Force Base , and located on Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
in Brevard County, Florida
Brevard County, Florida
, CCAFS. The station is the primary launch head of America's Eastern Range with three launch pads currently active (Space Launch Complexes 37B , 40 , and 41 )
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Scott Carpenter
MALCOLM SCOTT CARPENTER (May 1, 1925 – October 10, 2013), (Cmdr , USN ), was an American naval officer and aviator , test pilot , aeronautical engineer , astronaut , and aquanaut . He was one of the original seven astronauts selected for NASA
NASA
's Project Mercury in April 1959. Carpenter was the second American (after John Glenn
John Glenn
) to orbit the Earth and the fourth American in space , following Alan Shepard , Gus Grissom , and Glenn
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Wally Schirra
WALTER MARTY "WALLY" SCHIRRA JR. (March 12, 1923 – May 3, 2007), (CAPT , USN ), was an American naval officer and aviator , aeronautical engineer , test pilot , and one of the original seven astronauts chosen for Project Mercury
Project Mercury
, United States first effort to put humans in space . He flew the six-orbit, nine-hour Mercury-Atlas 8 mission on October 3, 1962, becoming the fifth American, and the ninth human, to ride a rocket into space. In the two-man Gemini program , he achieved the first space rendezvous , station-keeping his Gemini 6A spacecraft within 1 foot (30 cm) of the sister Gemini 7
Gemini 7
spacecraft in December 1965. In October 1968, he commanded Apollo 7 , an 11-day low Earth orbit shakedown test of the three-man Apollo Command/Service Module
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