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Medes
The MEDES (/miːdz/ , Old Persian Māda-, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μῆδοι, Hebrew : מָדַי‎) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran
Iran
) and who spoke the Median language . They mainly inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran
Iran
and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Kermanshah
Kermanshah
- Hamadan
Hamadan
(Ecbatana) region Their emergence in Iran
Iran
is thought to have occurred between 1000 BC to around 900 BC. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle " in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state
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Kayanian Dynasty
The KAYANIANS, also KAYS, KAYANIDS or KAIANIDS, or KIANI, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids , and before the historical Achaemenids . Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta
Avesta
, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
, and of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
, Iran
Iran
's national epic. As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno , the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold. The Kiani Crown is a physical manifestation of that belief
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world 's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area . Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1 , which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "Notes" column for each country for clarification
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Before Christ
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with AD counting years from the start of this epoch , and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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Prehistory Of Iran
The PREHISTORY OF IRAN could be divided to Paleolithic
Paleolithic
, Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
periods as follow: CONTENTS * 1 Paleolithic
Paleolithic
* 2 Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
* 3 Neolithic
Neolithic
* 4 Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading PALEOLITHICOne of the potential routes for early human migrations toward southern and eastern Asia is Iran, a country characterized by a wide range of geographic variation and resources, which could support early groups of hominins who wandered into the region
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Zarmihrids
The ZARMIHRID DYNASTY was a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian king Khosrau I to 785. The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra , a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith , the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash and Kavadh I
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Circa
CIRCA (from Latin , meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated C., CA. or CA (also CIRC. or CCA.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date. Circa is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty. Circa should only be used for dates in the past. For example: * 1732–1799 or 1732–99: both years are known precisely. * c. 1732 – 1799: only the end year is known accurately; the start year is approximate. * 1732 – c. 1799: only the start year is known accurately; the end year is approximate. * c. 1732 – c. 1799: both years are approximate.SEE ALSO * Floruit REFERENCES * ^ "circa". Dictionary.com
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Iron Age
Iron Age metallurgy Ancient iron production Ancient history Mediterranean , Greater Persia , South Asia , China Historiography Greek , Roman , Chinese , Medieval The IRON AGE is the final epoch of the three-age system , preceded by the Stone Age ( Neolithic ) and the Bronze Age . It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe
Europe
and the Ancient Near East , and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World . The three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe
Europe
in particular, and by the later 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East
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Mithra
MITHRA ( Avestan : 𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, Old Persian : 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça) is the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
angelic Divinity
Divinity
(yazata ) of Covenant and Oath
Oath
. In addition to being the Divinity
Divinity
of Contracts, Mithra
Mithra
is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing Protector of Truth , and the Guardian of Cattle, the Harvest and of The Waters . The Romans attributed their Mithraic mysteries (the mystery religion known as Mithraism) to "Persian" (i.e. Zoroastrian) sources relating to Mithra. Since the early 1970s the dominant scholarship has noted dissimilarities between the Persian and Roman traditions, at most, as a result of by Roman perceptions of (Pseudo-) Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
ideas
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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List Of Kings Of Persia
The following is a LIST OF MONARCHS OF PERSIA, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran
Iran
from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 550 BC until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
in 1979
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Rashidun Caliphate
The RASHIDUN CALIPHATE (Arabic : اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎‎ al-Khilāfaṫur-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (11 AH in the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun
Rashidun
or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (Arabic : اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ‎‎ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn). This term is not used in Shia Islam
Islam
as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate
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Suren Kingdom
The SUREN KINGDOM, also known as the INDO-PARTHIANS, was a kingdom ruled by the House of Suren
House of Suren
from c. 119 BC to 240 AD. The kingdom mainly ruled in Sakastan
Sakastan
during its whole existence, but at its zenith, it stretched as far as Sindh
Sindh
. In 240, the kingdom was incorporated into the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 History * 3 List of rulers * 4 Sources ORIGIN THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (January 2016)HISTORY THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (January 2016)LIST OF RULERSThe following list shows the known rulers of the kingdom: * Vonones of Sakastan
Sakastan
(75–65 BC) * Surena (??? - 53 BC) * Gondophares
Gondophares
(r. 19 AD - 46) * Abdagases I (r
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Qarinvand Dynasty
The QARINVAND DYNASTY (also spelled KARINVAND, KARENVAND, and QARENVAND), or simply the KARINIDS or QARINIDS, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(Mazandaran ) in what is now northern Iran
Iran
from the 550s until the 11th-century. They considered themselves as the inheritors of the Dabuyid dynasty
Dabuyid dynasty
, and were known by their titles of Gilgilan and Ispahbadh . They were descended from Sukhra , a Parthian nobleman from the House of Karen , who was the de facto ruler of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
from 484 to 493. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Known Qarinvand rulers * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORYThe dynasty was founded by Karen, who in return for aiding the Sasanian king Khosrow I (r
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Abbasid Caliphate
The ABBASID CALIPHATE (/əˈbæsᵻd/ or /ˈæbəsᵻd/ Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs , for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq
Iraq
, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centered its government in Kufa
Kufa
, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, north of the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon

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