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Maximilien Robespierre
MAXIMILIEN FRANçOIS MARIE ISIDORE DE ROBESPIERRE (French: ; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
. As a member of the Estates-General , the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club , Robespierre was an outspoken advocate for the poor and for democratic institutions. He campaigned for universal male suffrage in France, price controls on basic food commodities and the abolition of slavery in the French colonies. He was an ardent opponent of the death penalty, but played an important role in arranging the execution of King Louis XVI , which led to the establishment of a French Republic . He is perhaps best known for his role in the French Revolution's Reign of Terror
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University Of Paris
The UNIVERSITY OF PARIS (French : Université de Paris), metonymically known as the SORBONNE (French: , its historical house), was a university in Paris
Paris
, France
France
, from around 1150 to 1970. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris
Paris
, it was considered the second-oldest university in Europe . Officially chartered in 1200 by King
King
Philip II (Philippe-Auguste) of France
France
and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III , it was often nicknamed after its theology collegiate institution, College
College
of Sorbonne
Sorbonne
, founded about 1257 by Robert de Sorbon and charted by Saint Louis , King
King
of France
France

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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Lycée Louis-le-Grand
Jean Bastianelli NUMBER OF STUDENTS 1,818 students in 2009 MEDIUM OF LANGUAGE French LANGUAGE German, English, Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, Ancient Greek, Hebrew, Latin, Russian, Vietnamese WEBSITE www.louislegrand.org Exterior of the Lycée
Lycée
Louis-le-Grand, facing the rue St Jacques The LYCéE LOUIS-LE-GRAND (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a prestigious secondary school located in Paris
Paris
. Founded in 1563 as the Collège de Clermont, it was renamed in King Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
's honor after he extended his direct patronage to it in 1682
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Alma Mater
ALMA MATER ( Latin
Latin
: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college . In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, or a song or hymn associated with a school . The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its modern usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses , especially Ceres or Cybele , and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary

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Cicero
MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO (/ˈsɪsᵻroʊ/ ; Classical Latin: ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order , and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin
Latin
but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. According to Michael Grant , "the influence of Cicero
Cicero
upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language"
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French Livre
The LIVRE (English: pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
and its predecessor state of West Francia
West Francia
from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed, some concurrently. The livre was the name of both units of account and coins. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origin and etymology * 1.2 Late medieval and early modern period * 1.3 Seventeenth century * 1.4 Eighteenth century * 1.5 Later history * 2 References HISTORYORIGIN AND ETYMOLOGYThe livre was established by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver. It was subdivided into 20 sous (also sols), each of 12 deniers . The word livre came from the Latin word libra , a Roman unit of weight
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Universal Male Suffrage
UNIVERSAL MANHOOD SUFFRAGE is a form of voting rights in which all adult males within a political system are allowed to vote, regardless of income, property, religion, race, or any other qualification. It is sometimes summarized by the slogan, "one man, one vote." HISTORY For more details on dates by when countries granted universal manhood suffrage, see Universal suffrage
Universal suffrage
§ Dates by country . In the United States
United States
, the rise of Jacksonian democracy
Jacksonian democracy
from the 1820s to 1850s led to a close approximation of universal manhood suffrage among whites being adopted in most states (notably excepting Rhode Island until the aftermath of the Dorr Rebellion ), and poorer citizens being better represented
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Bourgeoisie
The BOURGEOISIE (Eng.: /bʊərʒwɑːˈziː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: Part of a series on MARXISM Theoretical works * Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 * Theses on Feuerbach * The German Ideology * The Communist Manifesto * The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon * Grundrisse der Kritik der Polit
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Age Of Enlightenment
The ENLIGHTENMENT (also known as the AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT or the AGE OF REASON; in French : le Siècle des Lumières, lit. 'the Century of Lights'; and in German : Aufklärung, 'Enlightenment') was an intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy. The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like liberty , progress , tolerance , fraternity , constitutional government , and separation of church and state . In France, the central doctrines of les Lumières were individual liberty and religious tolerance in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Albert Mathiez
ALBERT MATHIEZ (10 January 1874, La Bruyère, Haute-Saône – 25 February 1932) was a French historian, known for his Marxist interpretation of the French Revolution
French Revolution
. Mathiez emphasized class conflict. He argued that 1789 pitted the bourgeoisie against the aristocracy, and then the Revolution pitted the bourgeoisie against the sans-culottes, who were a proletariat-in-the-making. Mathiez greatly influenced Georges Lefebvre and Albert Soboul in forming what came to be known as the "orthodox" Marxist interpretation of the Revolution. Mathiez admired Robespierre, praised the Terror, and did not extend complete sympathy to the struggle of the proletariat. CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Notes * 3 Further reading * 4 External links CAREERMathiez came from a peasant family in Eastern France. He showed high intelligence as a young student, with a strong interest in history
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Picardy
PICARDY (/ˈpɪkərdi/ ; French : Picardie, French pronunciation: ​ ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France
France
. Since 1 January 2016, it is now part of the new region of Hauts-de- France
France
. It is located in the northern part of France. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Middle Ages * 1.2 Modern era * 1.3 Picardy
Picardy
today * 2 Geography * 3 Administration * 4 Language and culture * 5 Major communities * 6 In popular culture * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORY Map of the historical extent of Picardy
Picardy
within modern French borders The historical province of Picardy
Picardy
stretched from north of Noyon
Noyon
to Calais
Calais
, via the whole of the Somme department and the north of the Aisne department
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Carvin
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. CARVIN is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de- France
France
region of France
France
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Population * 4 Places of interest * 5 Notable people * 6 International relations * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links GEOGRAPHY East of Pas-de-Calais (Béthune, Lens, Hénin-Beaumont) An ex-coalmining commune, now a light industrial and farming town, situated some 14 miles (22.5 km) northeast of Lens , completely encircled by the N17 and D919 ring road
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Cato The Younger
MARCUS PORCIUS CATO UTICENSIS (95 BC, Rome
Rome
– April 46 BC, Utica ), commonly known as CATO THE YOUNGER (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder
Cato the Elder
), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. A noted orator , he is remembered for his stubbornness and tenacity (especially in his lengthy conflict with Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
), as well as his immunity to bribes , his moral integrity, and his famous distaste for the ubiquitous corruption of the period
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (French pronunciation: ​ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city in France
France
, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015). The city is a commune and department , and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de- France
France
region (colloquially known as the ' Paris
Paris
Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France. Since the 17th century, Paris
Paris
has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts
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Bar Association
A BAR ASSOCIATION is a professional body of lawyers . Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their jurisdiction ; others are professional organizations dedicated to serving their members; in many cases, they are both. In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, the bar association comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates in particular, versus solicitors (see bar council ). Membership in bar associations may be mandatory or optional for practicing attorneys, depending on jurisdiction
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