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Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron
LOUIS-MARIE STANISLAS FRéRON (17 August 1754 – 15 July 1802) was a French politician, journalist, representative to the National Assembly, and a representative on mission during the French Revolution . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Early Revolutionary activities * 2.1 Siege of Toulon
Toulon
* 3 Reaction and the Directory * 4 References BACKGROUNDThe son of Elie-Catherine Fréron
Elie-Catherine Fréron
, he was born in Paris
Paris
to a wealthy family. His father was a prominent journalist and popular opponent of the philosophes and encyclopédistes , his most notable opponent being Voltaire (who openly considered Elie his enemy), and it is surmised that his father's history of conflict with the state over freedom of the press heavily influenced Louis Fréron's political views
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Provence
PROVENCE (/prəˈvɒns/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ; Provençal : Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm , pronounced ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France
France
, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône
Rhône
River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south. It largely corresponds with the modern administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur , and includes the départements of Var , Bouches-du- Rhône
Rhône
, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
and parts of Alpes-Maritimes
Alpes-Maritimes
and Vaucluse
Vaucluse
. The largest city of the region is Marseille
Marseille

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Marseilles
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. MARSEILLE (English /mɑːrˈseɪ/ ; French: ( listen ), locally: ; Provençal Marselha ), also known as MARSEILLES, is a city in France . The capital of the Bouches-du-Rhône department and Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur region , Marseille, on France's south coast, is the country's second largest city , after Paris
Paris
, with a population of 852,516 in 2012, and an area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi), the 3rd-largest metropolitan area in France
France
after Paris
Paris
and Lyon
Lyon

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Toulon
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. TOULON (French pronunciation: ​ ; Provençal : Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm), pronounced ) is a city in southern France
France
and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur region , Toulon
Toulon
is the capital of the Var department . The Commune of Toulon
Toulon
has a population of 165,514 people (2009), making it the fifteenth-largest city in France. It is the centre of an urban area with 559,421 inhabitants (2008), the ninth largest in France
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Paul François Jean Nicolas, Vicomte De Barras
PAUL FRANçOIS JEAN NICOLAS, VICOMTE DE BARRAS (30 June 1755 – 29 January 1829), commonly known as PAUL BARRAS, was a French politician of the French Revolution , and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795–1799. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 National Convention * 3 Thermidor and the Directory * 4 Downfall and later life * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading EARLY LIFEDescended from a noble family of Provence , he was born at Fox-Amphoux , in today's Var département . At the age of sixteen, he entered the regiment of Languedoc as a "gentleman cadet ". In 1776, he embarked for French India . Shipwrecked on his voyage, he still managed to reach Pondicherry in time to contribute to the defence of that city during the Second Anglo-Mysore War . Besieged by British forces, the city surrendered on 18 October 1778; after the French garrison was released, Barras returned to France
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Louis XVI Of France
LOUIS XVI (French pronunciation: ​ ; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born LOUIS-AUGUSTE, was the last King of France before the French Revolution
French Revolution
; during which he was also known as LOUIS CAPET. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis , son and heir apparent of Louis XV , Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France . Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France
France
and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792. Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform France in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom , remove the taille , and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics
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Seine (département)
SEINE was a department of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs. Its capital was Paris and its official number was 75. The Seine department was abolished in 1968 and its territory divided among four new departments. CONTENTS * 1 General characteristics * 2 Formation * 3 Dissolution * 4 Population * 5 Controversy * 6 See also GENERAL CHARACTERISTICSFrom 1929 to its abolition in 1968, the department consisted of the city of Paris and 80 suburban communes surrounding Paris. It had an area of 480 km² (185 sq. miles), 22% of that area being the city of Paris, and 78% being independent suburbs. It was divided into three arrondissements: Paris, Sceaux , and Saint-Denis . FORMATION Seine department and its communes before the 1860 enlargement of the city of Paris The Seine department was created on March 4, 1790 as the Paris department. In 1795, it was renamed the Seine department after the Seine River flowing through it
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10th Of August (French Revolution)
REPUBLICANS : * National Guards * Fédérés ROYALISTS : * Swiss Guard
Swiss Guard
* Gentlemen-at-arms COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Antoine Joseph Santerre François Joseph Westermann Charles-Alexis Alexandre Claude Fournier-L\'Héritier Claude François Lazowski Louis XVI
Louis XVI
Augustin-Joseph de Mailly Karl Josef von Bachmann STRENGTH ~20,000 12 cannons 900 Swiss Guard 200 to 300 Gentlemen-at-arms Some royalist National Guards CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 200 to 400 killed 600 killed 200 captured The INSURRECTION OF 10 AUGUST 1792 was one of the defining events in the history of the French Revolution
French Revolution

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National Convention
The NATIONAL CONVENTION (French: Convention nationale) was the second government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly . Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792 , it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (4 Brumaire IV under the Convention\'s adopted calendar ). The Convention came about when the Legislative Assembly, which had found it impossible to work with the king, decreed the provisional suspension of King Louis XVI and the convocation of a National Convention to draw up a new constitution with no monarchy. The other major innovation was to decree that deputies to that Convention should be elected by all Frenchmen twenty-five years old or more, domiciled for a year and living by the product of their labor
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Swiss Guards
SWISS GUARDS (French : Gardes Suisses; German : Schweizergarde) are the Swiss soldiers who have served as guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century. Foreign military service was outlawed by the revised Swiss Federal Constitution of 1874, with the only exception being the Pontifical Swiss Guard ( Latin
Latin
: Pontificia Cohors Helvetica, Cohors Pedestris Helvetiorum a Sacra Custodia Pontificis; Italian : Guardia Svizzera Pontificia) stationed in Vatican City
Vatican City
. The modern Papal Swiss Guard serves as both a ceremonial unit and a bodyguard . Established in 1506, it is one of the oldest military units in the world . The earliest Swiss guard unit to be established on a permanent basis was the HUNDRED SWISS (Cent Suisses), which served at the French court from 1490 to 1817. This small force was complemented in 1567 by a Swiss Guards
Swiss Guards
regiment
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Département In France
(incl. overseas regions ) Departments (incl. overseas departments ) Arrondissements Cantons Intercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d\'agglomération Communauté de communes Communes Associated communes Municipal arrondissements Others in Overseas France
Overseas France
Overseas collectivities
Overseas collectivities
Sui generis collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
In the administrative divisions of France , the DEPARTMENT (French : département, pronounced ) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities "), between the administrative regions and the commune . There are 97 departments in metropolitan France , and 5 overseas departments , which are also classified as regions
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Siege Of Toulon
about 22,000 37 British ships 32 Spanish ships 5 Neapolitan ships of the line CASUALTIES AND LOSSES2,000 dead or wounded, 14 French ships of the line sunk in harbor, 15 captured about 4,000 dead * v * t * e War of the First Coalition * Porrentruy * Marquain * Verdun * Thionville * Valmy * Lille * Mainz * Jemappes * 1st Limburg * Anderlecht (fr) * Namur (fr) * Maastricht * 1st Aldenhoven * Neerwinden * Condé * 2nd Mainz * Raismes * Famars * Bellegarde * Sardinia * 1st Saorgio * 1st Arlon * Valenciennes * Perpignan * Caesar\'s Camp * Lincelles * Landau * Dunkirk * Le Quesnoy * Hondshoote * Avesnes-le-Sec * Menin * Méribel * Pirmasens * Epierre * Peyrestortes * Toulon * Truillas * Maubeuge * 1st Wissembo
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Reign Of Terror
The REIGN OF TERROR or THE TERROR (French: la Terreur) is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution. Several historians consider the "reign of terror" to have begun in 1793, placing the starting date at either 5 September, June or March (birth of the Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
), while some consider it to have begun in September 1792 ( September Massacres
September Massacres
), or even July 1789 (when the first decapitations took place), but there is a general consensus that it ended with the fall of Robespierre in July 1794 . Between June 1793 and the end of July 1794, there were 16,594 official death sentences in France, of which 2,639 were in Paris. However, the total number of deaths in France
France
was much higher, owing to death in imprisonment, suicide and casualties in foreign and civil war
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Club (weapon)
A CLUB (also known as a CUDGEL, BATON, TRUNCHEON, COSH, NIGHTSTICK, or BLUDGEON) is among the simplest of all weapons : a short staff or stick, usually made of wood , wielded as a weapon since prehistoric times. There are several examples of blunt-force trauma caused by clubs in the past, including at the site of Nataruk in Turkana, Kenya, described as the scene of a prehistoric conflict between bands of hunter-gatherers 10,000 years ago. In popular culture, clubs are associated with primitive cultures, especially cavemen . Most clubs are small enough to be swung with one hand, although larger clubs may require the use of two to be effective. Various specialized clubs are used in martial arts and other fields, including the law-enforcement baton . The military mace is a more sophisticated descendant of the club, typically made of metal and featuring a spiked, knobbed or flanged head attached to a shaft
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Jean-Baptiste Carrier
CARRIER may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Science and technology * 2 Military * 3 Ethnography and geography * 4 Commerce * 5 Entertainment * 6 Other SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY * Asymptomatic carrier
Asymptomatic carrier
, an organism infected with an infectious disease agent, but displaying no symptoms * Carrier
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Council Of The Five Hundred
The COUNCIL OF FIVE HUNDRED (CONSEIL DES CINQ-CENTS), or simply THE FIVE HUNDRED was the lower house of the legislature of France under the Constitution of the Year III , during the period commonly known (from the name of the executive branch during this time) as the Directory (Directoire), from 26 October 1795 until 9 November 1799, roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution . CONTENTS * 1 Role and function * 2 Elections of 1795 * 3 Elections of 1797 * 4 elections of 1798 * 5 Coup of 18th Brumaire Year VIII * 6 References ROLE AND FUNCTIONThe Council of Five Hundred was established under the Constitution of Year III which was adopted by a referendum on 24 September 1795, and constituted after the first elections which were held from 12–21 October 1795. Voting rights were restricted to citizens owning property bringing in income equal to 150 days of work
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