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Louis XIV
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the God-Given (Louis Dieudonné), Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.[1][2] In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power.[3] Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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Feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism
was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries
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André Charles Boulle
André—sometimes transliterated as Andre—is the French and Portuguese form of the name Andrew, and is now also used in the English-speaking world. It is a variation of the Greek name Andreas, a short form of any of various compound names derived from andr- 'man, warrior'
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Marin Marais
Marin Marais
Marin Marais
(French: [maʁɛ̃ maʁɛ]; 31 May 1656, Paris – 15 August 1728, Paris) was a French composer and viol player. He studied composition with Jean-Baptiste Lully, often conducting his operas, and with master of the bass viol Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe for six months. In 1676 he was hired as a musician to the royal court of Versailles and was moderately successful there, being appointed in 1679 as ordinaire de la chambre du roy pour la viole, a title he kept until 1725. He was the father of the composer Roland Marais (c. 1685 – c. 1750).Contents1 Career 2 Works2.1 Instrumental music 2.2 Operas 2.3 Sacred works3 Discography 4 References in film 5 References 6 External linksCareer[edit] Marin Marais
Marin Marais
was a master of the viol, and the leading French composer of music for the instrument
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Centralized Government
A centralized government (also centralised government (Oxford spelling)) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which federal states, local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject. In a national context, centralization occurs in the transfer of power to a typically sovereign nation state. Menes, an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, is credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt, and as the founder of the first dynasty (Dynasty I), became the first ruler to institute a centralized government.[1] All constituted governments are, to some degree, necessarily centralized, in the sense that a theoretically federal state exerts an authority or prerogative beyond that of its constituent parts
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Coronation
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible
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Jean De La Fontaine
Jean de La Fontaine
Jean de La Fontaine
(IPA: [ʒɑ̃ də la fɔ̃tɛn]; 8 July 1621 – 13 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France, and in French regional languages. After a long period of royal suspicion, he was admitted to the French Academy and his reputation in France has never faded since. Evidence of this is found in the many pictures and statues of the writer, as well as later depictions on medals, coins and postage stamps.Contents1 Life1.1 Early years 1.2 Family life 1.3 Paris 1.4 Fame 1.5 Academy 1.6 Anecdotes2 Works 3 Depictions and legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksLife[edit] Early years[edit] La Fontaine was born at Château-Thierry
Château-Thierry
in France
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Nobility
Nobility
Nobility
is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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Sun King (other)
Sun King
Sun King
is a sobriquet of Louis XIV of France. Sun King
Sun King
may also refer to:"Sun King" (song), by the Beatles The
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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List Of Longest-reigning Monarchs
This is a list of the longest-reigning monarchs of all time, detailing the 100 monarchs and lifelong leaders who have reigned the longest in world history, sorted by length of reign.Currently reigning monarchs are highlighted. Note: "(HRE)" indicates a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and a reign that concluded before the dissolution of the Empire in 1806
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Roman Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Saint- Denis
Denis
(French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃d(ə)ni]) is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km (5.8 mi) from the centre of Paris. Saint- Denis
Denis
is a subprefecture (French: sous-préfecture) of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis. Saint- Denis
Denis
is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint Denis
Denis
and was also the location of the associated abbey
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Reims Cathedral
Reims
Reims
Cathedral
Cathedral
(Our Lady of Reims, French: Notre-Dame de Reims) is a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church in Reims, France, built in the High Gothic style. The cathedral replaced an older church, destroyed by fire in 1211, that was built on the site of the basilica where Clovis I
Clovis I
was baptized by Saint Remi, bishop of Reims
Reims
in 496
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Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
(French: [nikɔla bwalo depʁeo]; 1 November 1636 – 13 March 1711), often known simply as Boileau, was a French poet and critic. He did much to reform the prevailing form of French poetry, in the same way that Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
did to reform the prose. He was greatly influenced by Horace.Contents1 Family and education 2 1660s 3 1670s 4 1700–1711 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksFamily and education[edit] Boileau was the fifteenth child of Gilles Boileau, a clerk in the parlement. Two of his brothers attained some distinction: Gilles Boileau, the author of a translation of Epictetus; and Jacques Boileau, who became a canon of the Sainte-Chapelle, and made valuable contributions to church history. The surname "Despréaux" was derived from a small property at Crosne near Villeneuve-Saint-Georges
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