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Lichen
A LICHEN is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship . The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colours, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose ), flat leaf-like structures (foliose ), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose ), or other growth forms. A MACROLICHEN is a lichen that is either bush-like or leafy; all other lichens are termed MICROLICHENS. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to size, but to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word "moss " (e.g., "reindeer moss ", "Iceland moss "), and lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant
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Temperate Woodland
WOODLAND /ˈwʊdlənd/ ( listen ) is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses . Woodland
Woodland
may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession . Higher density areas of trees with a largely closed canopy that provides extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forests . Extensive efforts by conservationist groups have been made to preserve woodlands from urbanization and agriculture. The woodlands in Northwest Indiana being an example, having been preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes
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Slag
SLAG is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted ) from its raw ore . Slag
Slag
is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide . However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. CONTENTS * 1 Ore
Ore
smelting * 2 Ancient uses * 3 Modern uses * 4 Basic slag * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading ORE SMELTINGIn nature, iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states called ores , often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals
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Rain Forest
RAINFORESTS are forests characterized by high rainfall , with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 250 and 450 centimetres (98 and 177 in), and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests . The monsoon trough , alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone , plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth
Earth
's tropical rainforests. Around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. It has been estimated that there may be many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth" and the "world\'s largest pharmacy ", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered there
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Sea Level
MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL) (abbreviated simply SEA LEVEL) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth\'s oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation , or, in aviation , as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels . A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales . The careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change , and sea level rise has been widely quoted as evidence of ongoing global warming
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Parasite
In biology /ecology , PARASITISM is a non-mutual relationship between species , where one species, the PARASITE, benefits at the expense of the other, the host . Traditionally parasite (in biological usage) referred primarily to organisms visible to the naked eye, or macroparasites (such as helminths ). Parasites can be microparasites , which are typically smaller, such as protozoa , viruses , and bacteria . Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta , and animals such as hookworms . Unlike predators , parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions
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Speciate
SPECIATION is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species . The biologist Orator F. Cook coined the term in 1906 for cladogenesis , the splitting of lineages, as opposed to anagenesis , phyletic evolution within lineages. Charles Darwin was the first to describe the role of natural selection in speciation in his 1859 book The Origin of Species . He also identified sexual selection as a likely mechanism, but found it problematic. There are four geographic modes of speciation in nature, based on the extent to which speciating populations are isolated from one another: allopatric , peripatric , parapatric , and sympatric . Speciation may also be induced artificially, through animal husbandry , agriculture, or laboratory experiments. Whether genetic drift is a minor or major contributor to speciation is the subject matter of much ongoing discussion
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Holobiont
HOLOBIONTS are assemblages of different species that form ecological units. Lynn Margulis
Lynn Margulis
proposed that any physical association between individuals of different species for significant portions of their life history is a symbiosis . All participants in the symbiosis are bionts, and therefore the resulting assemblage was first coined a holobiont by Lynn Margulis
Lynn Margulis
in 1991 in the book Symbiosis
Symbiosis
as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation. Holo is derived from the Ancient Greek word ὅλος (hólos) for “whole”. The entire assemblage of genomes in the holobiont is termed a hologenome . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Relationship to viromes and microbiomes * 3 Versus hologenome * 4 Versus superorganism * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYIn 1992, David Mindell subsequently used the word holobiont in a BioSystems article in general reference to host-microbe symbioses
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Teased Wool
TEASED WOOL is the stage of wool fiber in preparation for spinning, after it is teased out, prior to carding . Teased wool is loosened and spread out, has most of the dirt removed, and is no longer lumpy. REFERENCES * ^ A B Preparing Wool
Wool
for Handspinning, This article about textiles is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Morphology (biology)
MORPHOLOGY is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape , structure , colour , pattern , size ), i.e. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or eidonomy ), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs , i.e. INTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or anatomy ). This is in contrast to physiology , which deals primarily with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions of morphology * 3 Morphology and classification * 4 3D cell morphology:classification * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
μορφή, morphé, meaning "form", and λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, study, research"
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Longevity
The word "LONGEVITY" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy " in demography - however, the term "longevity" is sometimes meant to refer only to especially long-lived members of a population, whereas "life expectancy" is always defined statistically as the average number of years remaining at a given age. For example, a population's life expectancy at birth is the same as the average age at death for all people born in the same year (in the case of cohorts). Longevity
Longevity
is best thought of as a term for general audiences meaning 'typical length of life' and specific statistical definitions should be clarified when necessary. Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the brevity of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. Longevity
Longevity
has been a topic not only for the scientific community but also for writers of travel , science fiction , and utopian novels
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Photosynthesis
PHOTOSYNTHESIS is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation ). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules , such as sugars , which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together". In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product. Most plants , most algae , and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs . Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth
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Substrate (biology)
In biology , a SUBSTRATE is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant , fungus , or animal ) lives. A substrate can include biotic or abiotic materials and animals. For example, encrusting algae that lives on a rock (its substrate) can be itself a substrate for an animal that lives on top of the algae. CONTENTS * 1 Abiotic * 2 In animal biotechnology * 2.1 Requirements for animal cell and tissue culture * 2.2 For cell growth * 3 References * 4 External links ABIOTIC * Cellulose
Cellulose
substrate * Rock wool IN ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY This section NEEDS MORE LINKS TO OTHER ARTICLES TO HELP INTEGRATE IT INTO THE ENCYCLOPEDIA
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Microorganism
A MICROORGANISM or MICROBE is a microscopic organism , which may be single-celled or multicellular . The study of microorganisms is called microbiology , a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek . Robert Hooke coined the term "cell" after viewing plant cells under his microscope. Later, in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation . In 1876 Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms cause diseases. Microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria , archaea and most protozoa . This group also contains some fungi , algae , and some micro-animals such as rotifers . Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages . Some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving
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Epiphyte
An EPIPHYTE is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it. Epiphytes take part in nutrient cycles and add to both the diversity and biomass of the ecosystem in which they occur like any other organism. They are an important source of food for many species. Typically, the older parts of a plant will have more epiphytes growing on them. Epiphytes differ from parasites in that epiphytes grow on other plants for physical support and do not necessarily negatively affect the host. An epiphytic organism that is not a plant is sometimes called an epibiont . Epiphytes are usually found in the temperate zone (e.g., many mosses , liverworts , lichens , and algae ) or in the tropics (e.g., many ferns , cacti , orchids , and bromeliads ). Epiphyte
Epiphyte
species make good houseplants due to their minimal water and soil requirements
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