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Lecanoromycetes
Subclass Acarosporomycetidae * Acarosporales Subclass Lecanoromycetidae * Lecanorales * Peltigerales * Teloschistales Subclass Ostropomycetidae * Agyriales * Baeomycetales * Ostropales * Pertusariales incertae sedis (not placed in a subclass) * Candelariales * Umbilicariales LECANOROMYCETES is the largest class of lichenized fungi . It belongs to the subphylum Pezizomycotina in the phylum Ascomycota
Ascomycota
. The asci (spore -bearing cells) of the Lecanoromycetes
Lecanoromycetes
most often release spores by rostrate dehiscence . REFERENCES * ^ A B Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, F; Hofstetter, V; Fraker, E; Grube, M; Hafellner, J; Reeb, V; Hodkinson, BP; et al. (2006)
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Dehiscence (botany)
DEHISCENCE is the splitting at maturity along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits , anthers and sporangia . Sometimes this involves the complete detachment of a part. Structures that open in this way are said to be DEHISCENT. Structures that do not open in this way are called INDEHISCENT, and rely on other mechanisms such as decay or predation to release the contents. A similar process to dehiscence occurs in some flower buds (e.g., Platycodon , Fuchsia
Fuchsia
), but this is rarely referred to as dehiscence unless circumscissile dehiscence is involved; anthesis is the usual term for the opening of flowers. Dehiscence may or may not involve the loss of a structure through the process of abscission . The lost structures are said to be CADUCOUS
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Spore
In biology , a SPORE is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants , algae , fungi and protozoa . Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte . Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte , which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte
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Ascus
An ASCUS (plural ASCI; from Greek ἀσκός ảskós 'skin bag' ) is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi . Asci usually contain eight ascospores , produced by meiosis followed, in most species, by a mitotic cell division. However, asci in some genera or species can occur in numbers of one (e.g. Monosporascus cannonballus ), two, four, or multiples of four. In a few cases, the ascospores can bud off conidia that may fill the asci (e.g. Tympanis ) with hundreds of conidia, or the ascospores may fragment, e.g. some Cordyceps
Cordyceps
, also filling the asci with smaller cells. Ascospores are nonmotile, usually single celled, but not infrequently may be coenocytic (lacking a septum ), and in some cases coenocytic in multiple planes. Mitotic divisions within the developing spores populate each resulting cell in septate ascospores with nuclei
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Phylum
In biology, a PHYLUM (/ˈfaɪləm/ ; plural : PHYLA) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class . Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent. Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia or Metazoa contains approximately 33 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla. Current research in phylogenetics is uncovering the relationships between phyla, which are contained in larger clades , like Ecdysozoa and Embryophyta
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Taphrinomycetes
Protomycetaceae Taphrinaceae The TAPHRINOMYCETES are a class of ascomycete fungi belonging to the subdivision Taphrinomycotina . It includes the single order TAPHRINALES, which includes 2 families , 8 genera and 140 species . REFERENCES * ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi
Fungi
(10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 678. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8 . TAXON IDENTIFIERS * Wd : Q135200 * EoL : 5991 * GBIF : 184 * iNaturalist : 152035 * Index Fungorum : 90366 * ITIS : 610634 * MycoBank : 90366 * NCBI : 147555 This Ascomycota -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Geoglossomycetes
GEOGLOSSACEAE is a family of fungi in the order GEOGLOSSALES, class GEOGLOSSOMYCETES. These fungi are broadly known as EARTH TONGUES. The ascocarps of most species in the family Geoglossaceae are terrestrial and are generally small, dark in color, and club-shaped with a height of 2–8 cm. The ascospores are typically light-brown to dark-brown and are often multiseptate. Other species of fungi have been known to parasitize ascocarps. The use of a compound microscope is needed for accurate identification. SYSTEMATICS Geoglossum difforme Geoglossum simile Geoglossum sphagnophilum Geoglossum cookeanum , G. glabrum Geoglossum umbratile Geoglossum nigritum Geoglossum barlae Trichoglossum (T. hirsutum , T
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Domain (biology)
Eukaryota (represented by the Australian green tree frog , left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by Staphylococcus aureus , middle) and Archaea (represented by Sulfolobus , right). The hierarchy of biological classification 's eight major taxonomic ranks . Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. In biological taxonomy , a DOMAIN ( Latin : REGIO ) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese , an American microbiologist and biophysicist . According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life (biology) consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria
Bacteria
, and Eukarya
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Incertae Sedis
INCERTAE SEDIS ( Latin
Latin
for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Alternatively, such groups are frequently referred to as "enigmatic taxa". In the system of open nomenclature , uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is indicated by incertae familiae (of uncertain family), incerti subordinis (of uncertain suborder), incerti ordinis (of uncertain order) and similar terms. CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 In formal nomenclature * 3 Reason for use * 3.1 Poor description * 3.2 Not included in an analysis * 3.3 Controversy * 4 In zoological nomenclature * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EXAMPLES * The fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any family, but was placed incertae sedis within the order Ericales when described in 2001
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Opisthokont
The OPISTHOKONTS (Greek : ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") are a broad group of eukaryotes , including both the animal and fungus kingdoms , together with the eukaryotic microorganisms that are sometimes grouped in the paraphyletic phylum Choanozoa (conventionally assigned to the protist "kingdom"). The opisthokonts, sometimes referred to as the "Fungi/ Metazoa group", are generally recognized as a monophyletic clade . CONTENTS * 1 Flagella * 2 History * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Gallery * 5 References * 6 External links FLAGELLAOne common characteristic of opisthokonts is that flagellate cells, such as the sperm of most animals and the spores of the chytrid fungi , propel themselves with a single posterior flagellum. It is this feature that gives the group its name
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Leotiomycetes
Cyttariales Erysiphales
Erysiphales
Helotiales Leotiales Rhytismatales Thelebolales FAMILIES INCERTAE SEDIS Thelocarpaceae Vezdaeaceae GENERA INCERTAE SEDIS Amylocarpus Catinella Chaetomella Cyclaneusma Discohainesia Eleutheromyces Geniculospora Hainesia Hyphozyma Leohumicola Meliniomyces Naemacyclus The LEOTIOMYCETES are a class of ascomycete fungi . Many of them cause serious plant diseases . SYSTEMATICSThe class Leotiomycetes
Leotiomycetes
contains numerous species with an anamorph placed within the fungi imperfecti (deuteromycota), that have only recently found their place in the phylogenetic system. The older classifications placed Leotiomycetes
Leotiomycetes
into the Discomycetes clade (inoperculate Discomycetes)
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Laboulbeniomycetes
Laboulbeniales Pyxidiophorales The LABOULBENIOMYCETES are a unique group of fungi that are apparent external parasites of insects and other arthropods , both terrestrial and aquatic. These fungi are minute; their fruiting bodies commonly measure less than one millimeter. They live on the antennae, the mouthparts or other body regions of their arthropod hosts. Although several species of Laboulbeniomycetes
Laboulbeniomycetes
have more or less extensive, root-like hyphal systems (haustoria ) inside their hosts, as a group these fungi are apparently harmless to the animals they live on. These fungi are usually apparent only on adult hosts; apparently immature arthropods eliminate them during ecdysis (adult arthropods no longer molt). Some fungi in the Laboulbeniomycetes
Laboulbeniomycetes
have separate female and male individuals, like Herpomyces
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Sordariomycetes
Hypocreomycetidae Coronophorales Hypocreales Melanosporales Microascales
Microascales
Sordariomycetidae Boliniales Calosphaeriales Chaetosphaeriales Coniochaetales Diaporthales Magnaporthales Ophiostomatales Sordariales Xylariomycetidae Xylariales Incertae sedis Koralionastetales Lulworthiales Meliolales Phyllachorales Trichosphaeriales SORDARIOMYCETES is a class of fungi in the subdivision Pezizomycotina ( Ascomycota
Ascomycota
), consisting of 28 orders , 90 families , 1344 genera . Sordariomycetes
Sordariomycetes
generally produce their asci in perithecial fruiting bodies
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