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Kinetochore
Kinetochore: protein structure found at the centromere of a chromatid to which microtubules attach to during cell division. Image of a human cell showing microtubules in green, chromosomes (DNA) in blue, and kinetochores in pink The KINETOCHORE (/kᵻˈnɛtəkɔər/ , /-ˈniːtəkɔər/ ) is a protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart. Their proteins help to hold the sister chromatids together and also play a role in chromosome editing. The kinetochore forms in eukaryotes , assembles on the centromere and links the chromosome to microtubule polymers from the mitotic spindle during mitosis and meiosis . Monocentric organisms, including vertebrates, fungi, and most plants, have a single centromeric region on each chromosome which assembles one kinetochore. Holocentric organisms, such as nematodes and some plants, assemble a kinetochore along the entire length of a chromosome
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Eukaryota
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi
Fungi
are sometimes grouped in the kingdom PROTISTA . A EUKARYOTE (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/ ) is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes . Eukaryotes belong to the domain EUKARYOTA or EUKARYA, and can be unicellular or multicellular organisms . The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ( Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea
Archaea
) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material enclosed by the nuclear membrane . Konstantin Mereschkowski proposed a symbiotic origin for cells with nuclei
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Gene Knockout
A GENE KNOCKOUT (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism 's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism). Also known as KNOCKOUT ORGANISMS or simply KNOCKOUTS, they are used in learning about a gene that has been sequenced , but which has an unknown or incompletely known function. Researchers draw inferences from the difference between the knockout organism and normal individuals. The term also refers to the process of creating such an organism, as in "knocking out" a gene. The technique is essentially the opposite of a gene knockin . Knocking out two genes simultaneously in an organism is known as a DOUBLE KNOCKOUT (DKO). Similarly the terms TRIPLE KNOCKOUT (TKO) and QUADRUPLE KNOCKOUTS (QKO) are used to describe three or four knocked out genes, respectively
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RNA Interference
RNA
RNA
INTERFERENCE (RNAI) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted m RNA
RNA
molecules. Historically, it was known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling. Only after these apparently unrelated processes were fully understood did it become clear that they all described the RNAi phenomenon. Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Medicine
for their work on RNA
RNA
interference in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans
Caenorhabditis elegans
, which they published in 1998. Since the discovery of RNAi and its regulatory potentials, it has become evident that RNAi has immense potential in suppression of desired genes
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CENPB
1UFI, 1BW6, 1HLV IDENTIFIERS ALIASES CENPB, entrez:1059, centromere protein B EXTERNAL IDS OMIM: 117140 MGI: 88376 HomoloGene: 1370 GeneCards: CENPB GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome 20 (human) BAND 20p13 START 3,783,851 bp END 3,786,690 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR. Chromosome 2 (mouse) BAND 2 F12 63.29 cM START 131,175,182 bp END 131,180,067 bp ORTHOLOGS SPECIES HUMAN MOUSE ENTREZ 1059 12616 ENSEMBL ENSG00000125817 ENSMUSG00000068267 UNIPROT P07199 P27790 REFSEQ (MRNA)NM_001810 NM_007682 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001801 NP_031708 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 20: 3.78 – 3.79 Mb Chr 20: 131.18 – 131.18 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseCENTROMERE PROTEIN B also known as MAJOR CENTROMERE AUTOANTIGEN B is an autoantigen protein of the cell nucleus . In humans, centromere protein B is encoded by the CENPB gene
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Chromatid
A CHROMATID (Greek khrōmat- 'color' + -id) is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the original copy by a single centromere. Before replication, one chromosome is composed of one DNA
DNA
molecule. Following replication, each chromosome is composed of two DNA molecules; in other words, DNA
DNA
replication itself increases the amount of DNA
DNA
but does not increase the number of chromosomes. The two identical copies—each forming one half of the replicated chromosome—are called chromatids. During the later stages of cell division these chromatids separate longitudinally to become individual chromosomes. Chromatid
Chromatid
pairs are normally genetically identical, and said to be homozygous ; however, if mutation(s) occur, they will present slight differences, in which case they are heterozygous
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Microscopy
MICROSCOPY is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical , electron , and scanning probe microscopy . Optical "> Stereo microscope Optical or light microscopy involves passing visible light transmitted through or reflected from the sample through a single or multiple lenses to allow a magnified view of the sample. The resulting image can be detected directly by the eye, imaged on a photographic plate or captured digitally . The single lens with its attachments, or the system of lenses and imaging equipment, along with the appropriate lighting equipment, sample stage and support, makes up the basic light microscope. The most recent development is the digital microscope , which uses a CCD camera
CCD camera
to focus on the exhibit of interest
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Satellite DNA
SATELLITE DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA . Satellite DNA is the main component of functional centromeres , and form the main structural constituent of heterochromatin . The name "satellite DNA" refers to how repetitions of a short DNA sequence tend to produce a different frequency of the bases adenine , cytosine , guanine and thymine , and thus have a different density from bulk DNA - such that they form a second or 'satellite' band when genomic DNA is separated on a density gradient . CONTENTS * 1 Types of satellite DNA * 2 Length * 3 Origin * 4 Pathology * 5 Structure * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links TYPES OF SATELLITE DNASatellite DNA, together with minisatellite and microsatellite DNA, constitute the tandem repeats
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Heterochromatin
HETEROCHROMATIN is a tightly packed form of DNA
DNA
, which comes in multiple varieties. These varieties lie on a continuum between the two extremes of CONSTITUTIVE and FACULTATIVE HETEROCHROMATIN. Both play a role in the expression of genes . Because it is tightly packed, it was thought to be inaccessible to polymerases and therefore not transcribed, however according to Volpe et al. (2002), and many other papers since, much of this DNA
DNA
is in fact transcribed, but it is continuously turned over via RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS). Constitutive heterochromatin can affect the genes near itself (position-effect variegation ). It is usually repetitive and forms structural functions such as centromeres or telomeres , in addition to acting as an attractor for other gene-expression or repression signals
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Chromatids
A CHROMATID (Greek khrōmat- 'color' + -id) is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the original copy by a single centromere. Before replication, one chromosome is composed of one DNA molecule. Following replication, each chromosome is composed of two DNA molecules; in other words, DNA replication itself increases the amount of DNA but does not increase the number of chromosomes. The two identical copies—each forming one half of the replicated chromosome—are called chromatids. During the later stages of cell division these chromatids separate longitudinally to become individual chromosomes. Chromatid pairs are normally genetically identical, and said to be homozygous ; however, if mutation(s) occur, they will present slight differences, in which case they are heterozygous . The pairing of chromatids should not be confused with the ploidy of an organism, which is the number of homologous versions of a chromosome
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Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE is a species of yeast . It has been instrumental to winemaking , baking , and brewing since ancient times. It is believed to have been originally isolated from the skin of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle ). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology , much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium . It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation . S. cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5–10 μm in diameter. It reproduces by a division process known as budding . Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes
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CENPA
3AN2, 3NQJ, 3NQU, 3R45, 3WTP, 5CVD IDENTIFIERS ALIASES CENPA, CENP-A, CenH3, centromere protein A EXTERNAL IDS MGI: 88375 HomoloGene: 1369 GeneCards: CENPA GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome 2 (human) BAND 2p23.3 START 26,764,289 bp END 26,801,067 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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CENPI
NM_006733 NM_001318521 NM_001318523 NM_145924 NM_001305631 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001305450 NP_001305452 NP_006724 NP_001292560 NP_666036 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr X: 101.1 – 101.16 Mb Chr X: 134.31 – 134.36 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseCENTROMERE PROTEIN I is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CENPI gene . The product of this gene is involved in the response of gonadal tissues to follicle-stimulating hormone. This gene is also a potential candidate for human X-linked disorders of gonadal development and gametogenesis. REFERENCES * ^ A B C GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000102384 - Ensembl , May 2017 * ^ A B C GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000031262 - Ensembl , May 2017 * ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". * ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". * ^ Okada M, Cheeseman IM, Hori T, Okawa K, McLeod IX, Yates JR 3rd, Desai A, Fukagawa T (May 2006)
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RANGAP1
1Z5S, 2GRN, 2GRO, 2GRP, 2GRQ, 2GRR, 2IY0, 3UIN, 3UIO, 3UIP, 5D2M, 2IO2, 2IO3 IDENTIFIERS ALIASES RANGAP1, Fug1, RANGAP, SD, Ran GTPase activating protein 1 EXTERNAL IDS MGI: 103071 HomoloGene: 55700 GeneCards: RANGAP1 GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome 22 (human) BAND 22q13.2 START 41,245,611 bp END 41,286,251 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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RANBP2
1RRP, 1XKE, 1Z5S, 3UIN, 3UIO, 3UIP, 4I9Y, 4L6E, 4LQW, 5CLL, 5CLQ, 2LAS IDENTIFIERS ALIASES RANBP2, ADANE, ANE1, IIAE3, NUP358, TRP1, TRP2, RAN binding protein 2 EXTERNAL IDS HomoloGene: 136803 GeneCards: RANBP2 GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR
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Centrosome
In cell biology , the CENTROSOME (Latin centrum 'center' + Greek sōma 'body') is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression. The centrosome is thought to have evolved only in the metazoan lineage of eukaryotic cells . Fungi and plants lack centrosomes and therefore use other MTOC structures to organize their microtubules. Although the centrosome has a key role in efficient mitosis in animal cells, it is not essential in certain fly and flatworm species. Centrosomes are composed of two orthogonally arranged centrioles surrounded by an amorphous mass of protein termed the pericentriolar material (PCM). The PCM contains proteins responsible for microtubule nucleation and anchoring including γ-tubulin , pericentrin and ninein
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