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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping
Jyutping
(itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 (粵語, meaning " Cantonese
Cantonese
speech") and ping3jam1 (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Contraction (grammar)
A CONTRACTION is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds. In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be confused with crasis , abbreviations nor acronyms (including initialisms), with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. Contraction is also distinguished from clipping , where beginnings and endings are omitted. The definition overlaps with the grammatical term portmanteau (a linguistic blend ), but a distinction can be made between a portmanteau and a contraction by noting that contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept which the portmanteau describes
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Wenzhounese
WENZHOUNESE (simplified Chinese : 温州话; traditional Chinese : 溫州話; pinyin : wēnzhōuhuà), also known as OUJIANG (simplified Chinese : 瓯江话; traditional Chinese : 甌江話; pinyin : ōujiānghuà), TONG AU (simplified Chinese : 东瓯片; traditional Chinese : 東甌片; pinyin : dōngōupiàn) or AUISH (simplified Chinese : 瓯语; traditional Chinese : 甌語; pinyin : ōuyŭ), is the language spoken in Wenzhou
Wenzhou
, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, China. Nicknamed the "Devil's Language" for its complexity and difficulty, it is the most divergent division of Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
, with little to no mutual intelligibility with other Wu dialects or any other variety of Chinese . It features noticeable elements in common with Min Chinese , which is spoken to the south in Fujian
Fujian

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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Sichuanese Dialect
SICHUANESE (simplified Chinese : 四川话; traditional Chinese : 四川話; Sichuanese Pinyin
Sichuanese Pinyin
: Si4cuan1hua4; pinyin : Sìchuānhuà; Wade–Giles : Szŭ4-ch'uan1-hua4), or SICHUANESE/SZECHWANESE MANDARIN, (simplified Chinese : 四川官话; traditional Chinese : 四川官話; pinyin : Sìchuān Guānhuà) commonly known as SICHUANESE, or SZECHWANESE is a branch of
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Mandarin Chinese
MANDARIN (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen ); simplified Chinese : 官话; traditional Chinese : 官話; pinyin : Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China
China
. The group includes the Beijing dialect , the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the NORTHERN DIALECTS (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible . Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in any list of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion)
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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Efeo Chinese Transcription
TRANSCRIPTION may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Linguistics * 2 Genetics * 3 Other uses * 4 See also LINGUISTICS* Transcription (linguistics) , the representations of speech or signing in written form * Orthographic transcription , a transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language * Phonetic transcription , the representation of specific speech sounds or sign components *
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
, may be used
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Taiwanese Hokkien
/ (coastal) / (inland) NATIVE TO Taiwan
Taiwan
NATIVE SPEAKERS 15 million (1997) LANGUAGE FAMILY Sino-Tibetan * Chinese * Min * Southern Min
Southern Min
*
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Amoy Dialect
The AMOY DIALECT or XIAMEN DIALECT (Chinese : 廈門話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: Ē-mn̂g-ōe), also known as AMOYNESE, AMOY HOKKIEN, XIAMENESE or XIAMEN HOKKIEN, is a dialect of Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken in the city of Xiamen
Xiamen
(historically known as "Amoy") and surrounding areas, in the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
province. It is one of the most widely researched and studied varieties of the Southern Min
Southern Min
languages, and has historically come to be one of the more standardized varieties. Spoken Amoynese and Taiwanese are both mixtures of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou spoken dialects. As such, they are very closely aligned phonologically . However, there are some subtle differences between the two, as a result of physical separation and other historical factors
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore
Singapore

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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words
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Comparison Of Chinese Romanization Systems
This COMPARISON OF CHINESE TRANSCRIPTION SYSTEMS comprises a list of all syllables which are considered phonemically distinguishable within Standard Mandarin
Standard Mandarin
. Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
employs a different spelling for each tone , whereas other systems employ tone marks or superscript numerals
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Simplified Wade
SIMPLIFIED WADE, abbreviated SW, is a modification of the Wade–Giles romanization system for writing Standard Mandarin Chinese . It was devised by the Swedish linguist Olov Bertil Anderson (1920–1993), who first published the system in 1969. Simplified Wade uses tonal spelling: in other words it modifies the letters in a syllable in order to indicate tone differences. It is one of only two Mandarin romanization systems that indicate tones in such a way (the other being Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
). All other systems use diacritics or numbers to indicate tone
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