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Justice
JUSTICE is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture . An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John Locke
John Locke
argued for the theory of natural law . Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality
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C. S. Lewis
CLIVE STAPLES LEWIS (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was an Irish novelist, poet, academic, medievalist , literary critic, essayist, lay theologian , broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist . He held academic positions at both Oxford
Oxford
University (Magdalen College , 1925–1954) and Cambridge University (Magdalene College , 1954–1963). He is best known for his works of fiction, especially The Screwtape Letters , The Chronicles of Narnia , and The Space Trilogy , and for his non-fiction Christian apologetics, such as Mere Christianity , Miracles , and The Problem of Pain . Lewis and fellow novelist J. R. R. Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien
were close friends
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Federal Supreme Court Of Switzerland
The FEDERAL SUPREME COURT OF SWITZERLAND (German : Bundesgericht, French : Tribunal fédéral, Italian : Tribunale federale, Romansh : Tribunal federal (help ·info )) is the supreme court of the Swiss Confederation . As part of the judiciary, it is one of the three branches of government in Switzerland's political system. It is headquartered in the Federal Courthouse in Lausanne
Lausanne
in the canton of Vaud
Vaud
. The two social security divisions of the Federal Court (formerly Federal Insurance Court, as an organizationally independent unit of the Federal Court), are located in Lucerne
Lucerne
. The United Federal Assembly elects 38 federal judges to the Federal Supreme Court. The current president of the court is Ulrich Meyer
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Thrasymachus
THRASYMACHUS (/θræˈsiːməkəs/ ; Greek : Θρασύμαχος Thrasýmachos; c. 459 – c. 400 BC) was a sophist of Ancient Greece best known as a character in Plato
Plato
's Republic . CONTENTS * 1 Life, date, and career * 2 Fragment 1 * 3 In Plato
Plato
* 3.1 Quotes from Plato\'s Republic * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE, DATE, AND CAREER Thrasymachus was a citizen of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
, on the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
. His career appears to have been spent as a sophist at Athens
Athens
, although the exact nature of his work and thought is unclear. He is credited with an increase in the rhythmic character of Greek oratory, especially the use of the paeonic rhythm in prose, and a greater appeal to the emotions through gesture
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Luca Giordano
LUCA GIORDANO (18 October 1634 – 12 January 1705) was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching . Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples
Naples
and Rome, Florence
Florence
and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and training * 2 Florence
Florence
* 3 Court painter in Spain (1692–1702) * 4 Late work in Naples
Naples
* 5 Influence * 6 Critical reputation * 7 Gallery * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 External links EARLY LIFE AND TRAINING Luca Giordano
Luca Giordano
Venus and Mars Demokrit, 1690, Hamburger Kunsthalle Resurrection The Rape of Lucretia Born in Naples
Naples
, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano
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Argument From Morality
In logic and philosophy , an ARGUMENT is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion. The general form of an argument in a natural language is that of premises (variously propositions , statements or sentences ) in support of a claim: the conclusion. The structure of some arguments can also be set out in a formal language , and formally defined "arguments" can be made independently of natural language arguments, as in math, logic, and computer science. In a typical deductive argument , the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion, while in an inductive argument , they are thought to provide reasons supporting the conclusion's probable truth
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Navigator
A NAVIGATOR is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation . The navigator's primary responsibility is to be aware of ship or aircraft position at all times. Responsibilities include planning the journey, advising the ship\'s captain or aircraft commander of estimated timing to destinations while en route, and ensuring hazards are avoided. The navigator is in charge of maintaining the aircraft or ship's nautical charts , nautical publications , and navigational equipment, and generally has responsibility for meteorological equipment and communications. With the advent of GPS
GPS
, the effort required to accurately determine one's position has decreased by orders of magnitude, so the entire field has experienced a revolutionary transition since the 1990s with traditional navigation tasks being used less frequently
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Domenico Di Pace Beccafumi
DOMENICO DI PACE BECCAFUMI (1486 – May 18, 1551) was an Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
- Mannerist
Mannerist
painter active predominantly in Siena
Siena
. He is considered one of the last undiluted representatives of the Sienese school of painting. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Pavement of Duomo di Siena
Siena
* 3 Critical assessment and legacy * 4 Partial anthology of works * 5 References * 6 Notes * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYDomenico was born in Montaperti , near Siena
Siena
, the son of Giacomo di Pace, a peasant who worked on the estate of Lorenzo Beccafumi. Seeing his talent for drawing, Lorenzo adopted him, and commended him to learn painting from Mechero, a lesser Sienese artist
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False Dilemma
A FALSE DILEMMA is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option. The opposite of this fallacy is argument to moderation . The options may be a position that is between two extremes (such as when there are shades of grey) or may be completely different alternatives. Phrasing that implies two options (dilemma, dichotomy, black-and-white ) may be replaced with other number-based nouns, such as a "false trilemma ", "false tetralemma", or "false pentalemma" ("false trichotomy," "false tetrachotomy", "false pentachotomy", etc.) if something is reduced to only three, four, or five options. A false dilemma can arise intentionally, when a fallacy is used in an attempt to force a choice or outcome
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City State
A CITY-STATE is a sovereign state that consists of a city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome , Athens
Athens
, Carthage
Carthage
, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Today only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies to Singapore
Singapore
, Monaco , and Vatican City
Vatican City
. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Egalitarianism
EGALITARIANISM (from French égal, meaning 'equal') – or EQUALITARIANISM – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people. Egalitarian doctrines maintain that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status , according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary , the term has two distinct definitions in modern English: either as a political doctrine that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political , economic , social , and civil rights ; or as a social philosophy advocating the removal of economic inequalities among people , economic egalitarianism , or the decentralization of power . Some sources define egalitarianism as the point of view that equality reflects the natural state of humanity
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Quality Of Life
QUALITY OF LIFE (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life. It observes life satisfaction, including everything from physical health, family, education, employment, wealth, religious beliefs, finance and the environment. QOL has a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development , healthcare, politics and employment. It is important not to mix up the concept of QOL with a more recent growing area of health related QOL (HRQOL ). An assessment of HRQOL is effectively an evaluation of QOL and its relationship with health. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living , which is based primarily on income
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Virgin Of Mercy
The VIRGIN OF MERCY is a subject in Christian Art
Christian Art
, showing a group of people sheltering for protection under the outspread cloak, or pallium of the Virgin Mary . It was especially popular in Italy from the 13th to 16th centuries, often as a specialised form of votive portrait , and is also found in other countries and later art, especially Catalonia
Catalonia
and Latin America. In Italian it is known as the MADONNA DELLA MISERICORDIA (Madonna of Mercy), in German as the SCHUTZMANTELMADONNA (Sheltering-cloak Madonna), in Spanish VIRGEN DE LA MERCED or NUESTRA SEñORA DE LA MERCED (Our Lady of Mercy), in French as the VIèRGE AU MANTEAU or VIERGE DE MISéRICORDE (Virgin with a cloak or Virgin of Mercy) in Catalan as the MARE DE DéU DE LA MERCè and in Greek Orthodox Catholicism as PANAGIA TOU ELEOUS or MERKETTA (Μερκέττα)
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Social Status
SOCIAL STATUS is the position or rank of a person or group, within the society. Status can be determined in two ways. One can earn their social status by their own achievements, which is known as achieved status . Alternatively, one can be placed in the stratification system by their inherited position, which is called ascribed status . An embodied status is one that is generated by physical characteristics located within our physical selves (such as beauty, physical disability, stature, build). The status that is the most important for an individual at a given time is called master status
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Maarten Van Heemskerk
MAERTEN VAN HEEMSKERCK or Marten Jacobsz Heemskerk
Heemskerk
van Veen (1 June 1498 – 1 October 1574) was a Dutch portrait and religious painter, who spent most of his career in Haarlem
Haarlem
. He was a pupil of Jan van Scorel , and adopted his teacher's Italian-influenced style. He spent the years 1532–6 in Italy. He produced many designs for engravers, and is especially known for his depictions of the Wonders of the World . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Italy * 1.3 Later career * 2 Engravings * 2.1 Wonders of the World
Wonders of the World
* 3 Paintings * 3.1 Parrots * 4 Death * 5 Reputation * 6 Public Collections * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFE Family of Pieter Jan Foppesz. - painted before Heemskerck left for Italy in 1532
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