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Jarrow March
The Jarrow
Jarrow
March of 5 – 31 October 1936, also known as the Jarrow Crusade,[n 1] was an organised protest against the unemployment and poverty suffered in the English Tyneside
Tyneside
town of Jarrow
Jarrow
during the 1930s. Around 200 men (or "Crusaders" as they preferred to be referred to) marched from Jarrow
Jarrow
to London, carrying a petition to the British government requesting the re-establishment of industry in the town following the closure in 1934 of its main employer, Palmer's shipyard. The petition was received by the House of Commons but not debated, and the march produced few immediate results. The Jarrovians went home believing that they had failed. Jarrow
Jarrow
had been a settlement since at least the 8th century. In the early 19th century, a coal industry developed before the establishment of the shipyard in 1851
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Tyneside
Tyneside is a conurbation in North East England which includes a number of settlements on the banks of the River Tyne. As defined by the Office for National Statistics, the conurbation comprises Newcastle upon Tyne—a city forming the urban core—as well as a number of other towns including Gateshead, Tynemouth, Wallsend, South Shields, and Jarrow. The population of the conurbation was 774,891 according to the 2011 census. Tyneside is historically part of the counties of Northumberland and County Durham. Today it spans four local authority districts: the City of Newcastle upon Tyne and the Metropolitan Boroughs of Gateshead, North Tyneside and South Tyneside. According to data from 2013 ONS population estimates; the Tyne population, including the four local authority districts, was 832,469.[1] Tyneside is the 7th largest conurbation in England, and home to over 70 percent of the population of Tyne and Wear
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Newcastle Upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
(RP: /ˌnjuːkɑːsəl əpɒn ˈtaɪn/ ( listen);[4] locally: /njuːˌkæsəl əpən ˈtaɪn/ ( listen)),[4] commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh
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Workhouse
In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment. The earliest known use of the term dates from 1631, in an account by the mayor of Abingdon reporting that "wee haue erected wthn our borough a workehouse to sett poore people to worke".[1] The origins of the workhouse can be traced to the Poor Law Act of 1388, which attempted to address the labour shortages following the Black Death in England by restricting the movement of labourers, and ultimately led to the state becoming responsible for the support of the poor. But mass unemployment following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the introduction of new technology to replace agricultural workers in particular, and a series of bad harvests, meant that by the early 1830s the established system of poor relief was proving to be unsustainable
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Fascism
Fascism (/ˈfæʃɪzəm/) is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism,[1][2] characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce,[3] which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.[4] The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I before it spread to other European countries.[4] Opposed to liberalism, Marxism and anarchism, fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.[5][6][7][4][8][9] Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants
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A. J. P. Taylor
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy. Both a journalist and a broadcaster, he became well known to millions through his television lectures
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River Tyne
The River
River
Tyne /ˈtaɪn/ ( listen) is a river in North East England
England
and its length (excluding tributaries) is 73 miles (118 km).[1] It is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the North Tyne
North Tyne
and the South Tyne. These two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham
Hexham
in Northumberland
Northumberland
at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'. The North Tyne
North Tyne
rises on the Scottish border, north of Kielder Water. It flows through Kielder Forest, and in and out of the border. It then passes through the village of Bellingham before reaching Hexham. The South Tyne
South Tyne
rises on Alston Moor, Cumbria
Cumbria
and flows through the towns of Haltwhistle
Haltwhistle
and Haydon Bridge, in a valley often called the Tyne Gap
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County Durham
County Durham (/ˈdʌrəm/, locally /ˈdɜːrəm/) is a county[N 1] in North East England.[2] The county town is Durham, a cathedral city. The largest settlement is Darlington, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south.[3] The county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, and so includes places such as Gateshead, Jarrow, South Shields and Sunderland. During the Middle Ages the county was an ecclesiastical centre; this was mainly due to the shrine of St Cuthbert being in Durham Cathedral, and the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham. The county has a mixture of mining and farming heritage, as well as a heavy railway industry, particularly in the southeast of the county in Darlington, Shildon and Stockton
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Bede
Bede
Bede
(/biːd/ BEED; Old English: Bǣda, Bēda; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable
Venerable
Bede, and Bede
Bede
the Venerable (Latin: Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles
Angles
(contemporarily Monkwearmouth– Jarrow
Jarrow
Abbey in Tyne and Wear, England). Born on lands likely belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery, Bede
Bede
was sent there at the age of seven and later joined Abbot
Abbot
Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
at the Jarrow
Jarrow
monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there
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Dissolution Of The Monasteries
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of anti-Catholic administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded Roman Catholic monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions. Although the policy was originally envisaged as increasing the regular income of the Crown, much former monastic property was sold off to fund Henry's military campaigns in the 1540s. He was given the authority to do this in England and Wales by the Act of Supremacy, passed by Parliament in 1534, which made him Supreme Head of the Church in England, thus separating England from Papal authority, and by the First Suppression Act (1536) and the Second Suppression Act (1539). Professor George W
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Henry VIII Of England
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England
and dissolved convents and monasteries. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic
Catholic
theological teachings.[2] Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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Cholera
Cholera
Cholera
is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[3][2] Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe.[2] The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.[1] Vomiting
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Sir Charles Palmer, 1st Baronet
Sir Charles Mark Palmer, 1st Baronet (3 November 1822 – 4 June 1907) was an English shipbuilder born in South Shields, County Durham, England. He was also a Liberal Party politician and Member of Parliament. His father, originally the captain of a whaler, moved in 1828 to Newcastle upon Tyne, where he owned a ship owning and ship-broking business.Contents1 Early life 2 Emergence as an entrepreneur 3 Establishment of Palmer's shipyard 4 Military career 5 Political career 6 Baronetcy 7 Family 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] At the age of 15 Charles Palmer entered a shipping business in the city
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Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square (/trəˈfælɡər/ trə-FAL-gər) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. Its name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, Spain. The site of Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 13th century and originally contained the King's Mews. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. The 169-foot (52 m) Nelson's Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues
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Collier (ship)
A collier is a bulk cargo ship designed to carry coal, especially for naval use by coal-fired warships. Coaling at sea was critical to navies and speed of coal transfer was an important metric of naval efficiency. In 1883, forty tons an hour was considered fast and it would take over twelve hours to restock half the bunkers of a typical ship, HMS Collingwood.[1]Contents1 Coals from Newcastle1.1 Loading and unloading2 Alternate uses 3 See also3.1 Vessels of similar function 3.2 Famous colliers3.2.1 Vessels of James Cook 3.2.2 Other famous colliers4 References 5 External linksCoals from Newcastle[edit] For many years, the Durham and Northumberland coalfields supplied a rapidly expanding London with vast tonnages of coal, and a large fleet of coastal colliers travelled up and down the east coast of England loaded with "black diamonds"
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HMS Resolution (09)
HMS Resolution (pennant number: 09) was one of five Revenge-class battleships built for the Royal Navy during World War I. Completed after the Battle of Jutland in 1916, she saw no combat during the war. The future First Sea Lord John H. D. Cunningham served aboard her as Flag Captain to Admiral Sir William Fisher, the commander-in-chief of the Mediterranean Fleet.Contents1 Design and description1.1 Major alterations2 Construction and service2.1 World War II service 2.2 Fate3 Notes 4 Footnotes 5 References 6 External linksDesign and description[edit] Main article: Revenge-class battleshipIllustration of sister ship HMS Revenge as she appeared in 1916The Revenge-class ships were designed as slightly smaller, slower, and more heavily protected versions of the preceding Queen Elizabeth-class battleships
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