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Jammu
JAMMU pronunciation (help ·info ) is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
in India. It is situated on the banks of the Tawi River . It is administered by a municipal corporation . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Etymology * 3 History * 4 Climate * 5 Transport * 6 Administration * 7 Economy * 8 Tourism * 8.1 Amar Mahal Palace * 8.2 Bahu Fort 74.87 . It has an average elevation of 327 m (1,073 ft). Jammu
Jammu
city lies at uneven ridges of low heights at the Shivalik hills . It is surrounded by Shivalik range to the north, east and southeast while the Trikuta Range surrounds it in the north-west. It is approximately 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the national capital, New Delhi
New Delhi

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Human Sex Ratio
In anthropology and demography , the HUMAN SEX RATIO is the ratio of males to females in a population . More data are available for humans than for any other species, and the human sex ratio is more studied than that of any other species, but interpreting these statistics can be difficult. Like most sexual species, the sex ratio in humans is approximately 1:1. Due to higher female fetal mortality, the sex ratio at birth worldwide is commonly thought to be 107 boys to 100 girls , although this value is subject to debate in the scientific community. The sex ratio for the entire world population is 101 males to 100 females. Depending upon which definition is used, between 0.1% and 1.7% of live births are intersex . Gender imbalance may arise as a consequence of various factors including natural factors, exposure to pesticides and environmental contaminants, war casualties, gender-selective abortions and infanticides, aging, and deliberate gendercide
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Indian Standard Time
INDIAN STANDARD TIME (IST) is the time observed throughout India
India
, with a time offset of UTC+05:30 . India
India
does not observe daylight saving time (DSTu) or other seasonal adjustments. In military and aviation time IST is designated E* ("Echo-Star"). Indian Standard Time
Indian Standard Time
is calculated on the basis of 82.30' E longitude , in Allahabad which is nearly on the corresponding longitude reference line. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Criticism and proposals * 3 Time signals * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Main article: Time in India
India
After independence in 1947 , the Indian government established IST as the official time for the whole country, although Kolkata
Kolkata
and Mumbai retained their own local time (known as Calcutta Time and Bombay Time ) until 1948 and 1955, respectively
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Time Zone
A TIME ZONE is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal , commercial , and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time . Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12 to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland Standard Time is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones
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Punjabi Language
PUNJABI (/pʌnˈdʒɑːbi/ ; Shahmukhi : پنجاب ی paṉjābī; Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ pañjābī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 11th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people who inhabit the historical Punjab region of India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
. Among the Indo-European languages it is unusual in being a tonal language . Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan
Pakistan
, the 11th most widely spoken in India
India
and the third-most spoken native language in the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent

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Female
FEMALE (♀) is the sex of an organism , or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals , including female humans , have two X chromosomes . CONTENTS * 1 Defining characteristics * 2 Etymology and usage * 3 Mammalian female * 4 Symbol * 5 Sex
Sex
determination * 5.1 Genetic determination * 5.2 Environmental determination * 6 See also * 7 Sources * 8 References DEFINING CHARACTERISTICSThe ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system , while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon , is produced by the male . A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male, or vice versa (an exception is parthenogenesis ). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually
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Male
A MALE ( ) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm . Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum , in the process of fertilization . A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals , including male humans, have a Y chromosome
Y chromosome
, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs . Not all species share a common sex-determination system . In most animals , including humans , sex is determined genetically , but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity
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Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology , PRECIPITATION is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity . The main forms of precipitation include drizzle , rain , sleet , snow , graupel and hail . Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Municipal Corporation
A MUNICIPAL CORPORATION is the legal term for a local governing body , including (but not necessarily limited to) cities , counties , towns , townships , charter townships , villages , and boroughs . The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations . Municipal corporations are by definition incorporated, in contrast to unincorporated areas . CONTENTS* 1 Municipal corporation
Municipal corporation
as local self-government * 1.1 Canada * 1.2 India * 1.3 Ireland * 1.4 United States * 2 Municipal corporation
Municipal corporation
as enterprises * 3 See also * 4 References MUNICIPAL CORPORATION AS LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENTMunicipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter
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Köppen Climate Classification
KöPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the KöPPEN–GEIGER CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad)
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Ridge
A RIDGE or MOUNTAIN RIDGE is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size. TYPESThere are several main types of ridges: * Dendritic ridge: In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges. These are by far the most common ridges. These ridges usually represent slightly more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they often remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed or other chance occurrences
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Mahabharata
The MAHāBHāRATA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced ) is one of the two major Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics of ancient India
India
, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa . The Mahābhārata is an epic narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes. It also contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or puruṣārtha (12.161). Among the principal works and stories in the Mahābhārata are the Bhagavad Gita , the story of Damayanti , an abbreviated version of the Rāmāyaṇa, and the story of Ṛṣyasringa , often considered as works in their own right. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahābhārata is attributed to Vyāsa . There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers
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Kushan Empire
The KUSHAN EMPIRE ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Bactrian : Κυϸανο, Kushano; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: कुषाण राजवंश Kuṣāṇ Rājavaṃśa; BHS : Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; Chinese : 贵霜帝国; Parthian : Kušan-xšaθr ) was a syncretic empire, formed by Yuezhi , in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. It spread to encompass much of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath
Sarnath
near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan
Kushan
emperor Kanishka the Great
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Maurya Empire
The MAURYA EMPIRE was a geographically extensive Iron Age
Iron Age
historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between c. 322 and 187 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent , the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna
Patna
). The empire was the largest to have ever existed in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, spanning over 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its zenith under Ashoka
Ashoka

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Kabul Shahi
The KABUL SHAHI DYNASTIES also called SHAHIYA ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
in the 3rd century to the early 11th century. They are split into two eras: the Buddhist
Buddhist
Turk Shahi and the later Hindu
Hindu
-Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870 CE. When Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited the region early in the 7th century, the Kabul region was ruled by a Kshatriya king, who is identified as the Shahi Khingal, and whose name has been found in an inscription found in Gardez
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