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Iranian Languages
The IRANIAN LANGUAGES or IRANIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
, which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family . The speakers of Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are known as Iranian peoples . Historical Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BC), Middle Iranian (400 BC – 900 AD), and New Iranian (since 900 AD). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian (a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan (the language of the Avesta
Avesta
). Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
included Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian , and Bactrian
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Christian Lassen
CHRISTIAN LASSEN (October 22, 1800 – May 8, 1876) was a Norwegian -born orientalist and professor of Old Indian language and literature at the University of Bonn. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Work * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LIFEHe was born at Bergen, Norway
Norway
. Having received a university education at Oslo
Oslo
, he went to Germany and continued his studies at the University of Heidelberg
University of Heidelberg
and the University of Bonn
University of Bonn
. In Bonn, Lassen acquired a sound knowledge of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. He spent three years in Paris and London, engaged in copying and collating manuscripts, and collecting materials for future research, especially with reference to Hindu
Hindu
drama and philosophy
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Steppes
In physical geography , a STEPPE (Russian : степь; IPA: ) is an ecoregion , in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes , characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa
South Africa
they are referred to as veld . The prairie (especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. It may be semi-desert , or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude . The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest , but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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Robert Needham Cust
ROBERT NEEDHAM CUST (24 February 1821 – 27 October 1909) was a British administrator and judge in colonial India apart from being an Anglican evangelist and linguist. He was part of the Orientalism movement and active within the British and Foreign Bible Society . He was a prolific writer and wrote on a range of subjects. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Personal life * 3 Works * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links LIFECust was born to Reverend Henry Cockayne Cust, who was the second son of Sir Brownlow Cust, first baron Brownlow (1744–1807), and Lady Anna Maria Elizabeth Needham. Cust was educated at Eton College , Trinity College, Cambridge , Haileybury (1840–42) and the College of Fort William, Calcutta , graduating from the last-named institution in 1844. He then worked in the Bengal Civil Services for the East India Company , in Hoshiarpur and Ambala (assistant to the magistrate), in India
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George Abraham Grierson
SIR GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON OM KCIE (7 January 1851 – 9 March 1941) was an Irish administrator and linguist in British India . He worked in the Indian Civil Services but an interest in philology and linguistics led him to pursue studies in the languages and folklore of India during his postings in Bengal and Bihar. He published numerous studies in the journals of learned societies and wrote several books during his administrative career but proposed a formal linguistic survey at the Oriental Congress in 1886 at Vienna. The Congress recommended the idea to the British Government and he was appointed superintendent of the newly created Linguistic Survey of India in 1898
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Росси́йская Федера́ция (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Iranian Plateau
The PERSIAN PLATEAU, or IRANIAN PLATEAU, is a geological formation in Western Asia
Western Asia
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
to the west, the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
and the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
in the northwest, the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
and Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
to the south and the Indus River
Indus River
to the east in Pakistan
Pakistan
. As a historical region, it includes Parthia , Media , Persis , the heartlands of Iran
Iran
and some of its recently lost territories
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Max Müller
FRIEDRICH MAX MüLLER (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900), generally known as MAX MüLLER, was a German -born philologist and Orientalist , who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life. He was one of the founders of the western academic field of Indian studies and the discipline of comparative religion . Müller wrote both scholarly and popular works on the subject of Indology . The Sacred Books of the East , a 50-volume set of English translations, was prepared under his direction. He was the Boden professor of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
at Baliol , Oxford
Oxford
and also promoted the idea of a Turanian family of languages and Turanian people
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards. CONTENTS * 1 Collective codes * 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 * 3 History * 4 Deficiencies * 5 References * 6 External links COLLECTIVE CODES ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups
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Ethnologue
ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD is a commercial publication about the living languages of the world, first issued in 1951. As of 2017, it contains web-based information about 7,099 languages in its 20th edition, including the number of speakers, location, dialects, linguistic affiliations, autonym , availability of the Bible
Bible
in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, and an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS)
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Caucasus
Russia
Russia
* Adygea * Chechnya
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Western Asia
WESTERN ASIA, WEST ASIA, SOUTHWESTERN ASIA or SOUTHWEST ASIA is the westernmost subregion of Asia
Asia
. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East
Near East
), the main difference usually being the exclusion of Egypt
Egypt
(which would be counted as part of North Africa
North Africa
). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics . The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
Egypt

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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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Avesta
The AVESTA /əˈvɛstə/ is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language. Collected during the Sassanid
Sassanid
Period of much more ancient oral accounts, according to Jean Kellens , "The book was originally given the name abestag, which the Parsees later turned into Avesta
Avesta
and which probably comes from the Old Iranian •upa-stavaka, 'praise (of Ahura Mazda)'.". The Avesta
Avesta
texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by dialect , or by usage. The principal text in the liturgical group is the Yasna , which takes its name from the Yasna ceremony, Zoroastrianism's primary act of worship, and at which the Yasna text is recited
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