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International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems
The INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology , health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES AND RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System . The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases , including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases
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Canadian Institute For Health Information
The CANADIAN INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH INFORMATION (CIHI) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides essential information on Canada’s health systems and the health of Canadians. CIHI provides comparable and actionable data and information that are used to accelerate improvements in health care, health system performance and population health across Canada. Stakeholders use the broad range of health system databases, measurements and standards, together with evidence-based reports and analyses, in their decision-making processes. CIHI protects the privacy of Canadians by ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of the health care information. CIHI was established in 1994 and is governed by a 16-member Board of Directors that links federal, provincial and territorial governments with non-governmental health groups. Board members represent all health sectors and regions of Canada
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Risk Factor
In epidemiology , a RISK FACTOR is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection . Sometimes, DETERMINANT is also used, being a variable associated with either increased or decreased risk. CONTENTS * 1 Correlation
Correlation
vs causation * 2 Terms of description * 3 Example * 4 General determinants * 5 Risk marker * 6 History * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading CORRELATION VS CAUSATION Risk factors or determinants are correlational and not necessarily causal , because correlation does not prove causation . For example, being young cannot be said to cause measles , but young people have a higher rate of measles because they are less likely to have developed immunity during a previous epidemic. Statistical methods are frequently used to assess the strength of an association and to provide causal evidence (for example in the study of the link between smoking and lung cancer )
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Wiki
A WIKI (/ˈwɪki/ ( listen ) WIK-ee ) is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser . In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor . A wiki is run using wiki software , otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system , but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software , in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little implicit structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems . Some wiki engines are open source , whereas others are proprietary. Some permit control over different functions (levels of access); for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material
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IHTSDO
The INTERNATIONAL HEALTH TERMINOLOGY STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION (IHTSDO) is an international non-profit organization that owns SNOMED CT
SNOMED CT
, a leading clinical terminology used in electronic health records. IHTSDO was founded in 2007 by 9 charter member countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Lithuania, Sweden, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States) in order to acquire the rights of SNOMED CT
SNOMED CT
from the College of American Pathologists (CAP) and make the development of a global clinical language for healthcare an international, collaborative effort. As of January 1, 2017 the organization is trading under the name "SNOMED International"
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US Department Of Health And Human Services
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (HHS), also known as the HEALTH DEPARTMENT, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)
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Medicaid
MEDICAID in the United States
United States
is a social health care program for families and individuals with limited resources. The Health Insurance Association of America describes Medicaid
Medicaid
as a "government insurance program for persons of all ages whose income and resources are insufficient to pay for health care". Medicaid
Medicaid
is the largest source of funding for medical and health-related services for people with low income in the United States, providing free health insurance to 74 million low-income and disabled people (as of 2017). It is a means-tested program that is jointly funded by the state and federal governments and managed by the states, with each state currently having broad leeway to determine who is eligible for its implementation of the program. States are not required to participate in the program, although all have since 1982
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Medical Procedure
A MEDICAL PROCEDURE is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the delivery of healthcare. A medical procedure with the intention of determining, measuring, or diagnosing a patient condition or parameter is also called a medical test . Other common kinds of procedures are therapeutic (i.e., intended to treat, cure, or restore function or structure), such as surgical and physical rehabilitation procedures
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ICD-10-CM
INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES, 10TH REVISION, CLINICAL MODIFICATION (ICD-10-CM) provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), for medical coding and reporting in the United States. The ICD-10-CM is a morbidity classification for classifying diagnoses and reason for visits in all American health care settings. The ICD-10-CM is based on the ICD-10 , the statistical classification of disease published by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) which replaces ICD-9
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Medicare (United States)
In the United States, MEDICARE is a single-payer , national social insurance program administered by the U.S. federal government since 1966, currently using about 30–50 private insurance companies across the United States
United States
under contract for administration. United States Medicare is funded by a payroll tax , premiums and surtaxes from beneficiaries , and general revenue. It provides health insurance for Americans aged 65 and older who have worked and paid into the system through the payroll tax. It also provides health insurance to younger people with some disability status as determined by the Social Security Administration, as well as people with end stage renal disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis . In 2015, Medicare provided health insurance for over 55 million—46 million people age 65 and older and 9 million younger people. On average, Medicare covers about half of the health care charges for those enrolled
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Description Logic
DESCRIPTION LOGICS (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation languages. Many DLs are more expressive than propositional logic but less expressive than first-order predicate logic . In contrast to the latter, the core reasoning problems for DLs are (usually) decidable , and efficient decision procedures have been designed and implemented for these problems. There are general, spatial, temporal, spatiotemporal, and fuzzy descriptions logics, and each description logic features a different balance between DL expressivity and reasoning complexity by supporting different sets of mathematical constructors. DLs are used in artificial intelligence to describe and reason about the relevant concepts of an application domain (known as terminological knowledge). It is of particular importance in providing a logical formalism for ontologies and the Semantic Web : the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and its profile is based on DLs
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U.S. Public Health Service
The Public Health Service Act
Public Health Service Act
of 1944 structured the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE (PHS), founded in 1798, as the primary division of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW; which was established in 1953), which later became the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 1979–1980 (when the Education agencies were separated into their own U.S. Department of Education ). The Office of the Surgeon General was created in 1871. The PHS comprises all Agency Divisions of Health and Human Services and the Commissioned Corps. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps
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Medical Errors
A MEDICAL ERROR is a preventable adverse effect of care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. This might include an inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis or treatment of a disease , injury , syndrome , behavior , infection , or other ailment. Globally, it is estimated that 142,000 people died in 2013 from adverse effects of medical treatment; this is an increase from 94,000 in 1990. However, a 2016 study of the number of deaths that were a result of medical error in the U.S. placed the yearly death rate in the U.S. alone at 251,454 deaths, which suggests that the 2013 global estimation may not be accurate
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American Psychiatric Association
1000 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1825 Arlington County, Virginia , US MEMBERSHIP 36,000 members PRESIDENT Anita Everett, MD PRESIDENT-ELECT Altha J. Stewart, MD IMMEDIATE PAST-PRESIDENT Maria A. Oquendo, MD, PhD WEBSITE psychiatry.orgThe AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States , and the largest psychiatric organization in the world. Its some 36,000 members are mainly American but some are international. The association publishes various journals and pamphlets, as well as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM codifies psychiatric conditions and is used worldwide as a guide for diagnosing disorders. The organization has its headquarters in Arlington County, Virginia , in the United States
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Clinical Coder
A CLINICAL CODER – also known as CLINICAL CODING OFFICER, DIAGNOSTIC CODER, MEDICAL CODER or MEDICAL RECORDS TECHNICIAN – is a health care professional whose main duties are to analyse clinical statements and assign standard codes using a classification system . The data produced are an integral part of health information management , and are used by local and national governments, private healthcare organizations and international agencies for various purposes, including medical and health services research, epidemiological studies , health resource allocation, case mix management, public health programming, medical billing , and public education. For example, a clinical coder may use a set of published codes on medical diagnoses and procedures, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) or the Common Coding System for Healthcare Procedures (HCPCS), for reporting to the health insurance provider of the recipient of the care
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Centers For Disease Control And Prevention
The CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services , headquartered near Atlanta
Atlanta
, Georgia . Its main goal is to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of disease, injury, and disability in the US and internationally. The CDC focuses national attention on developing and applying disease control and prevention. It especially focuses its attention on infectious disease , food borne pathogens , environmental health , occupational safety and health , health promotion , injury prevention and educational activities designed to improve the health of United States citizens
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