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Indian Standard Time
INDIAN STANDARD TIME (IST) is the time observed throughout India
India
, with a time offset of UTC+05:30 . India
India
does not observe daylight saving time (DSTu) or other seasonal adjustments. In military and aviation time IST is designated E* ("Echo-Star"). Indian Standard Time
Indian Standard Time
is calculated on the basis of 82.30' E longitude , in Allahabad which is nearly on the corresponding longitude reference line. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Criticism and proposals * 3 Time signals * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Main article: Time in India
India
After independence in 1947 , the Indian government established IST as the official time for the whole country, although Kolkata
Kolkata
and Mumbai retained their own local time (known as Calcutta Time and Bombay Time ) until 1948 and 1955, respectively
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Indian National Satellite System
The INDIAN NATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEM ( Hindi
Hindi
: भारतीय राष्ट्रीय उपग्रह प्रणाली), or INSAT, is a series of multipurpose geo-stationary satellites launched by ISRO to satisfy the telecommunications , broadcasting , meteorology , and search and rescue operations. Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is the largest domestic communication system in the Asia Pacific Region. It is a joint venture of the Department of Space
Department of Space
, Department of Telecommunications
Telecommunications
, India Meteorological Department , All India Radio
Radio
and Doordarshan
Doordarshan
. The overall coordination and management of INSAT system rests with the Secretary-level INSAT Coordination Committee
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Picosecond
A PICOSECOND is an SI unit
SI unit
of time equal to 10−12 or 1/1,000,000,000,000 of a second . That is one trillionth, or one millionth of one millionth of a second , or 0.000 000 000 001 seconds. A picosecond is to one second as one second is to 31,710 years. Multiple technical approaches achieve imaging within single-digit picoseconds: for example, the streak camera or intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras are able to picture the motion of light. The name is formed by the SI prefix
SI prefix
pico and the SI unit
SI unit
second. It is abbreviated as ps. One picosecond is equal to 1000 femtoseconds , or 1/1000 nanoseconds . Because the next SI unit
SI unit
is 1000 times larger, measurements of 10−11 and 10−10 second are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of picoseconds
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Nanosecond
A NANOSECOND (NS) is an SI unit
SI unit
of time equal to one billionth of a second (10−9 or 1/1,000,000,000 s). One nanosecond is to one second as one second is to 31.71 years. The word nanosecond is formed by the prefix nano and the unit second. Its symbol is NS. A nanosecond is equal to 1000 picoseconds or  1⁄1000 microsecond . Because the next SI unit
SI unit
is 1000 times larger, times of 10−8 and 10−7 seconds are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of nanoseconds. Times of this magnitude are commonly encountered in telecommunications , pulsed lasers and some areas of electronics . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Speed of light
Speed of light
* 3 Common measurements * 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGYThe word nanosecond is formed by the prefix nano and the unit second. Its symbol is NS. The earliest use of the term is by George Gamow
George Gamow

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Frequency Counter
A FREQUENCY COUNTER is an electronic instrument , or component of one, that is used for measuring frequency . Frequency
Frequency
counters usually measure the number of oscillations or pulses per second in a periodic electronic signal . Such an instrument is sometimes referred to as a cymometer, particularly one of Chinese manufacture. Systron-Donner frequency counter from 1973 with Nixie tube
Nixie tube
display CONTENTS * 1 Operating principle * 2 Accuracy and resolution * 3 I/O Interfaces * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OPERATING PRINCIPLEMost frequency counters work by using a counter which accumulates the number of events occurring within a specific period of time. After a preset period known as the gate time (1 second, for example), the value in the counter is transferred to a display and the counter is reset to zero
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High Frequency
HIGH FREQUENCY (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz). It is also known as the DECAMETER BAND or DECAMETER WAVE as its wavelengths range from one to ten decameters (ten to one hundred metres). Frequencies immediately below HF are denoted medium frequency (MF), while the next band of higher frequencies is known as the very high frequency (VHF) band. The HF band is a major part of the shortwave band of frequencies, so communication at these frequencies is often called shortwave radio . Because radio waves in this band can be reflected back to Earth by the ionosphere layer in the atmosphere – a method known as "skip" or "skywave " propagation – these frequencies are suitable for long-distance communication across intercontinental distances
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Coordinated Universal Time
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT), but GMT
GMT
is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent), was not adopted until 1967. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time
Time
(SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972
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Kapil Sibal
KAPIL SIBAL (born 8 August 1948) is an Indian politician belonging to the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
party. A lawyer, he formerly served at the helm of various ministries in the Congress lead UPA government over the years – beginning with the Ministry of Science & Technology , then the Ministry of Human Resource Development followed by the Ministry of Communications & IT , and the Ministry of Law "> But he declined the offer and decided to set up his own law practice. Afterwards, he attended the Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
where he enrolled for an LL.M. which he completed in 1977. He was designated as senior lawyer in 1983. In 1989, he was appointed the Additional Solicitor General of India
India
. In 1994, he was the only lawyer to appear in the Parliament, and successfully defended a Supreme Court judge during impeachment proceedings
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Jahnu Barua
JAHNU BARUA (Assamese : জাহ্নু বৰুৱা, Hindi
Hindi
: जाहनू बरूवा) (1952– ) is a multiple national and international award-winning Indian film director from Assam
Assam
He has directed a number of Assamese and Hindi
Hindi
films, and along with Bhabendra Nath Saikia was one of the pioneers of Assamese Art cinema. He is best known outside Assam
Assam
for his Hindi
Hindi
film Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara , a drama which uses the principles of Gandhism for its thematic backstory
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Tarun Gogoi
TARUN GOGOI (Assamese : তৰুণ গগৈ) is an Indian politician who served as the Chief Minister of Assam from 2001 to 2016. He is a member of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
and led the party to a record three consecutive electoral victories in Assam. He completed 15 consecutive years as Chief Minister of Assam on 18 May 2016. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Personal life * 3 Political career * 4 Position held in the past * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEGogoi was born on 1 April 1936 into an ethnic Assamese Tai-Ahom family at Rangajan Tea Estate, erstwhile Sivasagar District, now the Jorhat District of Assam
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Atomic Clock
An ATOMIC CLOCK is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave , optical , or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known, and are used as primary standards for international time distribution services , to control the wave frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as GPS
GPS
. The principle of operation of an atomic clock is based on atomic physics ; it uses the microwave signal that electrons in atoms emit when they change energy levels . Early atomic clocks were based on masers at room temperature. Currently, the most accurate atomic clocks first cool the atoms to near absolute zero temperature by slowing them with lasers and probing them in atomic fountains in a microwave-filled cavity
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Phase (waves)
PHASE is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle. A complete cycle is defined as the interval required for the waveform to return to its arbitrary initial value. The graphic to the right shows how one cycle constitutes 360° of phase. The graphic also shows how phase is sometimes expressed in radians , where one radian of phase equals approximately 57.3°. Phase can also be an expression of relative displacement between two corresponding features (for example, peaks or zero crossings) of two waveforms having the same frequency . In sinusoidal functions or in waves "PHASE" has two different, but closely related, meanings. One is the initial angle of a sinusoidal function at its origin and is sometimes called PHASE OFFSET or PHASE DIFFERENCE. Another usage is the fraction of the wave cycle that has elapsed relative to the origin
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All India Radio
ALL INDIA RADIO (AIR), officially known since 1956 as ĀKāSHVāṇī ( Sanskrit : आकाशवाणी; "Voice from the Sky"), is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati . Established in 1930, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan , the national public television broadcaster. AIR has covered more than 99% of the Indian population as per the latest information given by Minister of Information and Broadcast. All India Radio is the largest radio network in the world. Its headquarters is at the Akashvani Bhavan in New Delhi . Akashvani Bhavan houses the Drama Section, the FM Section and the National Service. Akashvani Bhavan hosts Doordarshan Kendra ( Delhi )
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International Atomic Time
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC TIME (TAI, from the French name TEMPS ATOMIQUE INTERNATIONAL ) is a high-precision atomic coordinate time standard based on the notional passage of proper time on Earth
Earth
's geoid . It is the principal realisation of Terrestrial Time (except for a fixed offset of epoch). It is also the basis for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which is used for civil timekeeping all over the Earth's surface. As of 31 December 2016 when another leap second was added, TAI is exactly 37 seconds ahead of UTC. The 37 seconds results from the initial difference of 10 seconds at the start of 1972, plus 27 leap seconds in UTC since 1972. TAI may be reported using traditional means of specifying days, carried over from non-uniform time standards based on the rotation of the Earth. Specifically, both Julian Dates and the Gregorian calendar are used
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Terrestrial Time
TERRESTRIAL TIME (TT) is a modern astronomical time standard defined by the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
, primarily for time-measurements of astronomical observations made from the surface of Earth. For example, the Astronomical Almanac uses TT for its tables of positions (ephemerides ) of the Sun, Moon and planets as seen from Earth. In this role, TT continues TERRESTRIAL DYNAMICAL TIME (TDT or TD), which in turn succeeded ephemeris time (ET) . TT shares the original purpose for which ET was designed, to be free of the irregularities in the rotation of Earth . The unit of TT is the SI second , the definition of which is currently based on the caesium atomic clock , but TT is not itself defined by atomic clocks. It is a theoretical ideal, and real clocks can only approximate it
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Lists Of Time Zones
International: * List of time zones by country – sorted by number of current time zones in the world * List of time zones by UTC offset – current UTC offsets * List of time zone abbreviations – abbreviations * List of IANA time zones – zones that have the same time since 1970 * List of military time zones Country-specific: * List of time zones by U.S
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