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Human Eye
The HUMAN EYE is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ , the mammalian eye allows vision . Human eyes help provide a three dimensional, moving image, normally coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can differentiate between about 10 million colors and is possibly capable of detecting a single photon . Similar to the eyes of other mammals , the human eye's non-image-forming photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina receive light signals which affect adjustment of the size of the pupil, regulation and suppression of the hormone melatonin and entrainment of the body clock
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Medical Subject Headings
MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MESH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE / PubMed
PubMed
article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
PubMed

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Terminologia Anatomica
TERMINOLOGIA ANATOMICA (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and was released in 1998. It supersedes the previous standard, Nomina Anatomica . Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross (macroscopic) anatomical structures. In April 2011, Terminologia Anatomica was published online by the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT), the successor of FCAT
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Foundational Model Of Anatomy
The FOUNDATIONAL MODEL OF ANATOMY ONTOLOGY (FMA) is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy . It is a symbolic representation of the canonical, phenotypic structure of an organism ; a spatial-structural ontology of anatomical entities and relations which form the physical organization of an organism at all salient levels of granularity . FMA is developed and maintained by the Structural Informatics Group at the University of Washington
University of Washington
. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 References * 3 See also * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONFMA ontology contains approximately 75,000 classes and over 120,000 terms, over 2.1 million relationship instances from over 168 relationship types
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Anatomical Terminology
ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists , zoologists , and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
uses many unique terms, suffixes , and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin
Latin
. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Superior Rectus Muscle
The SUPERIOR RECTUS MUSCLE is a muscle in the orbit . It is one of the extraocular muscles . It is innervated by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve
Nerve
III). In the primary position (looking straight ahead), the superior rectus muscle's primary function is elevation, although it also contributes to intorsion and adduction. The SUPERIOR RECTUS MUSCLES is shown in this image of the right eye from above. Hover the mouse over the structures for their names. Click for more information. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Function * 3 Clinical significance * 3.1 Testing * 4 Additional images * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTURE See also: Extraocular muscles
Extraocular muscles
FUNCTION See also: Eye movement It elevates , adducts , and helps intort (rotate medially) the eye
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Tenon's Capsule
The FASCIA BULBI (also known as the CAPSULE OF TENON and the BULBAR SHEATH) is a thin membrane which envelops the eyeball from the optic nerve to the limbus , separating it from the orbital fat and forming a socket in which it moves. Its inner surface is smooth, and is separated from the outer surface of the sclera by the periscleral lymph space . This lymph space is continuous with the subdural and subarachnoid cavities, and is traversed by delicate bands of connective tissue which extend between the fascia and the sclera. The fascia is perforated behind by the ciliary vessels and nerves, and fuses with the sheath of the optic nerve and with the sclera around the entrance of the optic nerve . In front it adheres to the conjunctiva , and both structures are attached to the ciliary region of the eyeball. The structure was named after Jacques-René Tenon (1724–1816), a French surgeon and pathologist
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Eye
EYES are organs of the visual system . They provide organisms vision , the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light and convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons . In higher organisms, the eye is a complex optical system which collects light from the surrounding environment, regulates its intensity through a diaphragm , focuses it through an adjustable assembly of lenses to form an image, converts this image into a set of electrical signals, and transmits these signals to the brain through complex neural pathways that connect the eye via the optic nerve to the visual cortex and other areas of the brain. Eyes with resolving power have come in ten fundamentally different forms, and 96% of animal species possess a complex optical system. Image-resolving eyes are present in molluscs , chordates and arthropods
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Fovea Centralis
The FOVEA CENTRALIS (the term fovea comes from the Latin, meaning pit or pitfall) is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye . It is located in the center of the macula lutea of the retina . The fovea is responsible for sharp central vision (also called foveal vision), which is necessary in humans for activities where visual detail is of primary importance, such as reading and driving. The fovea is surrounded by the parafovea belt, and the perifovea outer region. The parafovea is the intermediate belt, where the ganglion cell layer is composed of more than five rows of cells, as well as the highest density of cones; the perifovea is the outermost region where the ganglion cell layer contains two to four rows of cells, and is where visual acuity is below the optimum. The perifovea contains an even more diminished density of cones, having 12 per 100 micrometres versus 50 per 100 micrometres in the most central fovea
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Sclera
The SCLERA, also known as the WHITE OF THE EYE, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fiber . In humans, the whole sclera is white, contrasting with the coloured iris , but in other mammals the visible part of the sclera matches the colour of the iris, so the white part does not normally show. In the development of the embryo , the sclera is derived from the neural crest . In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing slightly blue. In the elderly, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear slightly yellow. The human eye is relatively rare for having an iris that is small enough for its position to be plainly visible against the sclera. This makes it easier for one individual to infer where another individual is looking, and the cooperative eye hypothesis suggests this has evolved as a method of nonverbal communication
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Organ (anatomy)
In biology , an ORGAN or VISCUS is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function . In anatomy , a VISCUS (/ˈvɪskəs/ ) is an internal organ, and VISCERA (/ˈvɪsərə/ ) is the plural form. Organs are composed of main tissue, parenchyma , and "sporadic" tissues, stroma . The main tissue is that which is unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium , the main tissue of the heart , while sporadic tissues include the nerves , blood vessels , and connective tissues. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer . Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems . Organs exist in all higher biological organisms, in particular they are not restricted to animals, but can also be identified in plants. In single-cell organisms like bacteria , the functional analogue of an organ is called organelle
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Light
LIGHT is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum . The word usually refers to VISIBLE LIGHT, which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight . Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), or 4.00 × 10−7 to 7.00 × 10−7 m, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430–750 terahertz (THz). The main source of light on Earth
Earth
is the Sun
Sun
. Sunlight
Sunlight
provides the energy that green plants use to create sugars mostly in the form of starches, which release energy into the living things that digest them. This process of photosynthesis provides virtually all the energy used by living things
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Circadian Rhythm
A CIRCADIAN RHYTHM /sɜːrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous , entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock , and they have been widely observed in plants , animals , fungi , and cyanobacteria . The term circadian comes from the Latin circa , meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diēm, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal , weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology . Processes with 24-hour oscillations are more generally called DIURNAL RHYTHMS; strictly speaking, they should not be called circadian rhythms unless their endogenous nature is confirmed. Although circadian rhythms are endogenous ("built-in", self-sustained), they are adjusted (entrained) to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers (from German, "time giver"), which include light, temperature and redox cycles
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Iris Dilator Muscle
The IRIS DILATOR MUSCLE (PUPIL DILATOR MUSCLE, PUPILLARY DILATOR, RADIAL MUSCLE OF IRIS, RADIATING FIBERS), is a smooth muscle of the eye , running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator. The pupillary dilator consists of a spokelike arrangement of modified contractile cells called myoepithelial cells . These cells are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. When stimulated, the cells contract, widening the pupil and allowing for more light to pass through the eye. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Innervation * 2 Function * 3 History * 3.1 Etymology * 4 Additional images * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREINNERVATIONIt is innervated by the sympathetic system, which acts by releasing noradrenaline , which acts on α1-receptors
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Iris Sphincter Muscle
The IRIS SPHINCTER MUSCLE (PUPILLARY SPHINCTER, PUPILLARY CONSTRICTOR, CIRCULAR MUSCLE OF IRIS, CIRCULAR FIBERS) is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris . It encircles the pupil of the iris, appropriate to its function as a constrictor of the pupil. CONTENTS * 1 Comparative Anatomy * 2 General Structure * 3 Mode of Action * 4 Innervation * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COMPARATIVE ANATOMYIt is found in vertebrates and some cephalopods . GENERAL STRUCTUREInitially, all the myocytes are of the smooth muscle type but, later in life, most cells are of the striated muscle type. Its dimensions are about 0.75 mm wide by 0.15 mm thick. MODE OF ACTIONIn humans, it functions to constrict the pupil in bright light (pupillary light reflex ) or during accommodation . In lower animals, the muscle cells themselves are photosensitive causing iris action without brain input
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