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Horsepower
HORSEPOWER (HP) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is done). There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the MECHANICAL HORSEPOWER (or IMPERIAL HORSEPOWER), which is approximately 746 watts, and the METRIC HORSEPOWER, which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses . It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines , as well as turbines , electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit
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Horse Mill
A HORSE MILL is a mill, sometimes used in conjunction with a watermill or windmill , that uses a horse as the power source. Any milling process can be powered in this way, but the most frequent use of animal power in horse mills was for grinding grain and pumping water. Other animal engines for powering mills are powered by dogs , donkeys , oxen or camels . Treadwheels are engines powered by humans. In Antwerp
Antwerp
, Belgium, the Brewers' House museum is a good example of horse-powered pumping machinery. The building dates from the 16th century; although the original wooden machinery was replaced in cast iron in the mid-19th century, the original layout has been retained
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Force
any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object For other uses, see Force (other) . FORCE Forces are also described as a push or pull on an object. They can be due to phenomena such as gravity , magnetism , or anything that might cause a mass to accelerate
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John Smeaton
JOHN SMEATON FRS (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals , harbours and lighthouses . He was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist . Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed "civil engineer ", and is often regarded as the "father of civil engineering". He pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete , using pebbles and powdered brick as aggregate. Smeaton was associated with the Lunar Society . CONTENTS * 1 Law and physics * 2 Civil engineering * 3 Mechanical engineer * 4 Legacy * 4.1 Smeaton coefficient * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links LAW AND PHYSICSSmeaton was born in Austhorpe , Leeds
Leeds
, England
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John Theophilus Desaguliers
JOHN THEOPHILUS DESAGULIERS (12 March 1683 – 29 February 1744) was a French-born British natural philosopher, clergyman, engineer and freemason who was elected to the Royal Society in 1714 as experimental assistant to Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
. He had studied at Oxford and later popularized Newtonian theories and their practical applications in public lectures. Desaguliers’s most important patron was James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos . As a Freemason, Desaguliers was instrumental in the success of the first Grand Lodge in London
London
in the early 1720s and served as its third Grand Master
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Newcomen Steam Engine
The ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE was invented by Thomas Newcomen
Thomas Newcomen
in 1712, often referred to simply as a NEWCOMEN ENGINE. The engine operated by condensing steam drawn into the cylinder, thereby creating a partial vacuum, thereby allowing the atmospheric pressure to push the piston into the cylinder. It was the first practical device to harness steam to produce mechanical work . Newcomen engines were used throughout Britain and Europe, principally to pump water out of mines . Hundreds were constructed through the 18th century. James Watt
James Watt
's later engine design was an improved version of the Newcomen engine that roughly doubled fuel efficiency . Many atmospheric engines were converted to the Watt design, for a price based on a fraction of the savings in fuel. As a result, Watt is today better known than Newcomen in relation to the origin of the steam engine
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Thomas Savery
THOMAS SAVERY (c. 1650–1715) was an English inventor and engineer, born at Shilstone, a manor house near Modbury , Devon, England. He is famous for his invention of the first commercially used steam powered engine. CONTENTS* 1 Career * 1.1 First steam engine mechanism * 1.2 Fire Engine Act * 1.3 Application of the engine * 2 Inspiration for later work * 3 See also * 4 Further reading * 5 Notes * 6 External links CAREERSavery became a military engineer, rising to the rank of Captain by 1702, and spent his free time performing experiments in mechanics. In 1696 he took out a patent for a machine for polishing glass or marble and another for "rowing of ships with greater ease and expedition than hitherto been done by any other" which involved paddle-wheels driven by a capstan and which was dismissed by the Admiralty following a negative report by the Surveyor of the Navy , Edmund Dummer
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Boiler
A BOILER is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil . (In North America, the term "furnace " is normally used if the purpose is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications, including water heating , central heating , boiler-based power generation , cooking , and sanitation
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General Conference On Weights And Measures
The GENERAL CONFERENCE ON WEIGHTS AND MEASURES (French : Conférence générale des poids et mesures – CGPM) is the senior of the three Inter-governmental organizations established in 1875 under the terms of the Metre Convention (French : Convention du Mètre) to represent the interests of member states. The treaty, which also set up two further bodies, the International Committee for Weights and Measures (French : Comité international des poids et mesures – CIPM) and the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
International Bureau of Weights and Measures
(French : Bureau international des poids et mesures – BIPM), was drawn up to coordinate international metrology and to coordinate the development of the metric system . The conference meets in Sèvres (south-west of Paris) every four to six years
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Royal Automobile Club
The ROYAL AUTOMOBILE CLUB is a British private club and is not to be confused with RAC , an automotive services company, which it formerly owned. It has two club houses: one in London
London
at 89–91 Pall Mall , and the other in the countryside at Woodcote Park
Woodcote Park
, Surrey
Surrey
, next to the City of London
London
Freemen\'s School . Like many other gentlemen's clubs in London
London
today, the Royal Automobile
Automobile
Club welcomes women as members. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Associate section (RAC Motoring Services) * 2 Facilities * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY This 1901 Mors 10 H.P
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Draft Horses
A DRAFT HORSE (US), DRAUGHT HORSE (UK and Commonwealth) or DRAY HORSE (from the Old English
Old English
dragan meaning "to draw or haul"; compare Dutch dragen and German tragen meaning "to carry" and Danish drage meaning "to draw" or "to fare"), less often called a CARTHORSE, WORK HORSE or HEAVY HORSE, is a large horse bred to be a working animal doing hard tasks such as plowing and other farm labor. There are a number of breeds , with varying characteristics, but all share common traits of strength, patience, and a docile temperament which made them indispensable to generations of pre-industrial farmers. Draft horses and draft crossbreds are versatile breeds used today for a multitude of purposes, including farming, draft horse showing , logging, recreation, and other uses
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Basal Rate
In biology, BASAL RATE is the rate of continuous supply of some chemical or process. In the case of diabetes mellitus , it is a low rate of continuous insulin supply needed for such purposes as controlling cellular glucose and amino acid uptake. Together with a bolus of insulin, the basal insulin completes the total insulin needs of an insulin-dependent person. An insulin pump and wristop controller is one way to arrange for a closely controlled basal insulin rate. The slow-release insulins (e.g., Lantus and Levemir) can provide a similar effect. In healthy individuals, basal rate is monitored by the pancreas, which provides a regular amount of insulin at all times. The body requires this flow of insulin to enable the body to utilize glucose in the blood stream, so the energy in glucose can be used to carry out bodily functions
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Rounding
ROUNDING a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing £23.4476 with £23.45, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression √2 with 1.414. Rounding
Rounding
is often done to obtain a value that is easier to report and communicate than the original. Rounding
Rounding
can also be important to avoid misleadingly precise reporting of a computed number, measurement or estimate ; for example, a quantity that was computed as 123,456 but is known to be accurate only to within a few hundred units is better stated as "about 123,500". On the other hand, rounding of exact numbers will introduce some round-off error in the reported result
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US Gal
The GALLON (/ˈɡælən/ ) is a unit of measurement for liquid capacity in both the US customary units and the British imperial systems of measurement. Three significantly different sizes are in current use: the imperial gallon defined as 7000454609000000000♠4.54609 litres , which is used in the United Kingdom, Canada
Canada
, and some Caribbean
Caribbean
nations; the US gallon defined as 231 cubic inches (3.785 L), which is used in the US and some Latin American and Caribbean
Caribbean
countries; and the least-used US dry gallon defined as 1⁄8 US bushel (4.405 L). While there is no official symbol for the gallon (as there are for SI units), GAL is in common use
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Minute
The MINUTE is a unit of time or of angle . As a unit of time, the minute is equal to  1⁄60 (the first sexagesimal fraction ) of an hour , or 60 seconds . In the UTC time standard , a minute on rare occasions has 61 seconds, a consequence of leap seconds (there is a provision to insert a negative leap second, which would result in a 59-second minute, but this has never happened in more than 40 years under this system). As a unit of angle, the minute of arc is equal to  1⁄60 of a degree , or 60 seconds (of arc) . Although not an SI unit for either time or angle, the minute is accepted for use with SI units for both. The SI symbols for minute or minutes are MIN for time measurement, and the prime symbol after a number, e.g. 5′, for angle measurement. The prime is also sometimes used informally to denote minutes of time. In contrast to the hour, the minute (and the second) does not have a clear historical background
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Lbf/in²
The POUND PER SQUARE INCH or, more accurately, POUND-FORCE PER SQUARE INCH (symbol: LBF/IN2; abbreviation: PSI) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch . In SI units , 1 psi is approximately equal to 6895 N /m2 . POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH ABSOLUTE (PSIA) is used to make it clear that the pressure is relative to a vacuum rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi, this will be added to any pressure reading made in air at sea level. The converse is POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH GAUGE (PSIG), indicating that the pressure is relative to atmospheric pressure. For example, a bicycle tire pumped up to 65 psi above local atmospheric pressure (say, 14.7 psia locally), will have a pressure of 65 psig, but a pressure of 79.7 psia (14.7 psi + 65 psi)
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