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Herodotus
HERODOTUS (/hɪˈrɒdətəs/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek pronunciation: ) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
(modern-day Bodrum , Turkey
Turkey
) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides
Thucydides
, Socrates
Socrates
, and Euripides . He is often referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred by Cicero
Cicero
; he was the first historian known to have broken from Homeric tradition to treat historical subjects as a method of investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials systematically and critically, and then arranging them into a historiographic narrative
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Porphyry (philosopher)
PORPHYRY OF TYRE (/ˈpɔːrfəri/ ; Greek : Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; Arabic
Arabic
: فرفوريوس‎‎, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre , in the Roman Empire. He edited and published the Enneads , the only collection of the work of his teacher Plotinus
Plotinus
. His commentary on Euclid
Euclid
's Elements was used as a source by Pappus of Alexandria . He also wrote many works himself on a wide variety of topics. His Isagoge , or Introduction, is an introduction to logic and philosophy, and in the Latin
Latin
and Arabic
Arabic
translations it was the standard textbook on logic throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

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Eusebius
EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (/juːˈsiːbiəs/ ; Greek : Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as EUSEBIUS PAMPHILI, was a Greek historian of Christianity, exegete , and Christian polemicist . He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima
Caesarea Maritima
about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus , he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely well learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History " he produced the Ecclesiastical History , On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs
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Cicero
MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO (/ˈsɪsᵻroʊ/ ; Classical Latin: ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order , and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin
Latin
but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. According to Michael Grant , "the influence of Cicero
Cicero
upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language"
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Papyrus Oxyrhynchus
The OXYRHYNCHUS PAPYRI are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt
Egypt
(28°32′N 30°40′E / 28.533°N 30.667°E / 28.533; 30.667 , modern el-Bahnasa). The manuscripts date from the time of the Ptolemaic (3rd century BC) and Roman periods of Egyptian history (from 32 BC to the Arab conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in 640 AD). Only an estimated 10% are literary in nature. The lion’s share of the papyri found seem to consist mainly of public and private documents: codes, edicts, registers, official correspondence, census-returns, tax-assessments, petitions, court-records, sales, leases, wills, bills, accounts, inventories, horoscopes, and private letters
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Bust (sculpture)
A BUST is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure , depicting a person's head and neck , and a variable portion of the chest and shoulders . The piece is normally supported by a plinth . These forms recreate the likeness of an individual. These may be of any medium used for sculpture, such as marble , bronze , terracotta or wood. A parallel term, AUST, is a representation of the upper part of an animal or mythical creature. Sculptural portrait heads from classical antiquity are sometimes displayed as busts. However, these are often fragments from full-body statues, or were created to be inserted into an existing body; these portrait heads are not included in this article. CONTENTS * 1 Pictorial timeline * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links PICTORIAL TIMELINE* Pericles with the Corinthian helmet (marble, Roman after a Greek original, c. 430 BC) * The Empress Vibia Sabina (c
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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish ) Flag ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Ista
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Danube
The DANUBE or DONAU (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-yoob , known by various names in other languages ) is Europe
Europe
's second longest river , after the Volga . It is located in Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world
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Hellanicus Of Lesbos
HELLANICUS (or HELLANIKOS) OF LESBOS (Greek : Ἑλλάνικος ὁ Λέσβιος), also called HELLANICUS OF MYTILENE (Greek : Ἑλλάνικος ὁ Μυτιληναῖος) was an ancient Greek logographer who flourished during the latter half of the 5th century BC. He was born in Mytilene
Mytilene
on the isle of Lesbos in 490 BC and is reputed to have lived to the age of 85. According to the Suda
Suda
, he lived for some time at the court of one of the kings of Macedon
Macedon
, and died at Perperene , a city in Aeolis
Aeolis
on the plateau of Kozak near Pergamon
Pergamon
, opposite Lesbos . He was one of the most prolific of early historians. His many works, though now lost, were very influential
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Dionysius Of Halicarnassus
DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS (Greek : Διονύσιος Αλεξάνδρου Αλικαρνασσεύς Dionysios Alexandrou Alikarnassefs; "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BC – after 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric , who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus
Augustus
. His literary style was Atticistic — imitating Classical Attic Greek in its prime. Dionysius' opinion of the necessity of a promotion of paideia within education, from true knowledge of Classical sources , endured for centuries in a form integral to the identity of the Greek elite
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Principate
The PRINCIPATE is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from the beginning of the reign of Augustus
Augustus
in about 30 BC to the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate
Dominate
. The Principate
Principate
is characterised by the reign of a single emperor (princeps) and an effort on the part of the early emperors, at least, to preserve the illusion of the formal continuance, in some aspects, of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic

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Hubris
HUBRIS (/ˈhjuːbrɪs/ , also HYBRIS, from ancient Greek ὕβρις) describes a personality quality of extreme or foolish pride or dangerous overconfidence . In its ancient Greek context, it typically describes behavior that defies the norms of behavior or challenges the gods, and which in turn brings about the downfall, or nemesis , of the perpetrator of hubris. The adjectival form of the noun hubris is "hubristic". Hubris
Hubris
is usually perceived as a characteristic of an individual rather than a group, although the group the offender belongs to may unintentionally suffer consequences from the wrongful act. Hubris
Hubris
often indicates a loss of contact with reality and an overestimation of one's own competence, accomplishments or capabilities
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Calabria
CALABRIA (Italian pronunciation: ; Calàbbria in Calabrian , Calavría in Calabrian Greek , Καλαβρία in Greek , Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian ), known in antiquity as BRUTTIUM, is a region in Southern Italy
Italy
. The capital city of Calabria
Calabria
is Catanzaro . The Regional Council of Calabria
Calabria
is based at the Palazzo Campanella
Palazzo Campanella
in the city of Reggio Calabria
Calabria
. The region is bordered to the north by the Basilicata Region, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
, and to the east by the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
. The region covers 15,080 km2 (5,822 sq mi) and has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria
Calabria
is calabrese in Italian and Calabrian in English
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Ethnography
ETHNOGRAPHY (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of peoples and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group . The word can thus be said to have a double meaning, which partly depends on whether it is used as a count noun or uncountable. The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group
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Anatolia
ANATOLIA (Turkish : Anadolu, in Modern Greek : Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí – "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as ASIA MINOR (Turkish : Küçük Asya, in Medieval and Modern Greek : Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá Asía, modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), ASIAN TURKEY, the ANATOLIAN PENINSULA, or the ANATOLIAN PLATEAU, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia
Asia
, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey
Turkey
. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west
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Thurii
THURII (/ˈθʊərɪaɪ/ ; Greek : Θούριοι Thoúrioi), called also by some Latin
Latin
writers THURIUM (compare Greek : Θούριον in Ptolemy
Ptolemy
), for a time also COPIA and COPIAE, was a city of Magna Graecia , situated on the Tarentine gulf , within a short distance of the site of Sybaris
Sybaris
, whose place it may be considered as having taken. The ruins of the city can be found in the Sybaris archaeological park near Sibari in the Province of Cosenza
Province of Cosenza
, Calabria , Italy
Italy
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Abandonment * 2 Coinage * 3 Famous people * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Excavated area seen from the normal elevation of the surrounding landscape. Excavated remains of buildings, possibly from Thurii. Excavated mosaic floor with swastikas , possibly from Thurii
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