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Gowran
GOWRAN (Irish : Gabhrán) is a town located on the eastern side of County Kilkenny
County Kilkenny
, Ireland . The historic St. Mary\'s Collegiate Church is located in the centre of Gowran
Gowran
close to Gowran Castle . Gowran Park race course and Golf Course is located one km from the centre of Gowran. Gowran
Gowran
is located on the R448 regional road (former N9 national primary road ) where it is crossed by the R702 regional road . Gowran
Gowran
is the birthplace of one of the country's most famous hurlers, D.J. Carey and the Olympic gold medalists in synchronized swimming at the 2012 London special Olympics, Sean Middleton
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James I Of England
JAMES VI AND I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as JAMES VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as JAMES I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union . James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots , and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland , positioning him to eventually accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother Mary was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583
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Parliamentary Borough
A BOROUGH is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. The word borough derives from common Proto-Germanic "*burgz", meaning "fort": compare with bury, burgh and brough (England), burgh (Scotland), Burg (Germany), borg (Scandinavia), burcht (Dutch), boarch (West Frisian), and the Germanic borrowing present in neighbouring Indo-european languages
Indo-european languages
such as borgo (Italian), bourg (French), burgo (Spanish and Portuguese), burg (Romanian), purg (Kajkavian ) and durg (दर्ग) (Hindi) and arg (ارگ) (Persian )
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Oliver Cromwell
ENGLISH CIVIL WAR : * Gainsborough * Marston Moor * Newbury II * Naseby * Langport * Preston * Dunbar
Dunbar
* Worcester
Worcester
Royal styles of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth REFERENCE STYLE His Highness SPOKEN STYLE Your Highness ALTERNATIVE STYLE SirOLIVER CROMWELL (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland . Cromwell was born into the middle gentry , albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII
Henry VIII
's minister Thomas Cromwell . Little is known of the first 40 years of his life as only four of his personal letters survive alongside a summary of a speech he delivered in 1628
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Siege
A SIEGE is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault. This derives from sedere, Latin for "to sit". Siege
Siege
warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy. A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that cannot be easily taken by direct assault and refuses to surrender . Sieges involve surrounding the target and blocking the reinforcement or escape of troops or provision of supplies (a tactic known as "investment " ), typically coupled with attempts to reduce the fortifications by means of siege engines , artillery bombardment, mining (also known as sapping), or the use of deception or treachery to bypass defences
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Town Wall
A DEFENSIVE WALL is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements. Generally, these are referred to as CITY WALLS or TOWN WALLS, although there were also walls , such as the Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
, Walls of Benin
Walls of Benin
, Hadrian\'s Wall
Wall
, Anastasian Wall
Wall
, the Cyclopean Wall
Wall
Rajgir and the metaphorical Atlantic Wall
Wall
, which extended far beyond the borders of a city and were used to enclose regions or mark territorial boundaries. In mountainous terrain, defensive walls such as letzis were used in combination with castles to seal valleys from potential attack
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Ulster
Patron Saints: Finnian of Moville Columba
Columba
a. ^ The Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Statistics and Research Agency for 2011 combined with the preliminary results of Census of Ireland 2011 for Ulster
Ulster
(part of). b. ^ Ulster
Ulster
contains all of the Northern Ireland constituency (3 MEPs) as well as part of the Midlands–North-West constituency (4 MEPs); the counties of Cavan, Monaghan and Donegal contain 17.5% of the population of this constituency. ULSTER (/ˈʌlstər/ ; Irish : Ulaidh pronounced or Cúige Uladh pronounced , Ulster
Ulster
Scots : Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland
Ireland
. In ancient Ireland
Ireland
, it was one of the fifths (Irish : cúige) ruled by a rí ruirech , or "king of over-kings"
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Edward The Bruce
EDWARD BRUCE, EARL OF CARRICK (Norman French : Edward de Brus; Middle Irish : Edubard a Briuis; Modern Scottish Gaelic : Eideard or Iomhair Bruis; c. 1280 – 14 October 1318), was a younger brother of Robert the Bruce , King of Scotland, and supported his brother in the struggle for the Scottish crown, then pursued his own claims in Ireland . He was proclaimed High King of Ireland , but was eventually defeated and killed in battle by John, Earl of Louth . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Fathering one or two sons * 3 The invasion of Ireland * 3.1 Historical background * 3.2 Arrival and the Campaign of 1315 * 3.3 Famine * 3.4 Marriage * 3.5 Irish kings\' Remonstrance of 1317 * 3.6 Battle of Faughart * 3.7 Historical aftermath * 4 Ancestry * 5 References * 6 External links * 7 Sources EARLY LIFEEdward was one of five sons of Robert de Brus, jure uxoris Earl of Carrick and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick
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Army
An ARMY (from Latin
Latin
arma "arms, weapons" via Old French
Old French
armée, "armed" (feminine)) or GROUND FORCE is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch , service branch or armed service of a nation or state . It may also include aviation assets by possessing an army aviation component. In certain nations, the term army refers to the entire armed forces of a nation (e.g., People\'s Liberation Army
Army
). Within a national military force, the word army may also mean a field army . They differ from army reserves who are activated only during such times as war or natural disasters . In several countries, the army is officially called the LAND ARMY to differentiate it from an air force called the AIR ARMY, notably France . In such countries, the word "army" on its own retains its connotation of a land force in common usage
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Scottish People
Scotland
Scotland
4,446,000 (2011) (Scottish descent only) UNITED STATES B 6,006,955 Scottish 5,393,554 Scotch-Irish CANADA C 4,719,850 AUSTRALIA 1,792,600 ENGLAND D 795,000 :8 NORTHERN IRELAND E 760,620 ARGENTINA 100,000 CHILE 80,000 BRAZIL 45,000 FRANCE 45,000 POLAND 15,000 NEW ZEALAND 14,412 SOUTH AFRICA 11,160 (estimate) :10 ISLE OF MAN 2,403 HONG KONG G 1,459 LANGUAGES English ( Scottish English ) Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Scots RELIGION Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
, Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
, Episcopalianism ; other minority groups------------------------- A These figures are estimates based on census data of populations and official surveys of identity
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James II Of England
JAMES II AND VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701 ) was King of England and Ireland as JAMES II and King of Scotland as JAMES VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England , Scotland and Ireland . The second surviving son of Charles I , he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II . Members of Britain's Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and of having designs on becoming an absolute monarch . When he produced a Catholic heir , leading nobles called on his Protestant son-in-law and nephew William of Orange to land an invasion army from the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
, which he did in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James fled England (and thus was held to have abdicated)
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Charter Of Incorporation
A CHARTER is the grant of authority or rights , stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority (or sovereignty ), and that the recipient admits a limited (or inferior) status within the relationship, and it is within that sense that charters were historically granted, and that sense is retained in modern usage of the term. The word entered the English language from the Old French charte from Latin charta from Greek χάρτης khartes "layer of papyrus"). It has come to be synonymous with the document that lays out the granting of rights or privileges
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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National Monument (Ireland)
A NATIONAL MONUMENT (Irish : Séadchomhartha Náisiúnta) in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
is a structure or site which has been deemed to be of national importance and therefore worthy of state protection. If the land adjoining to the monument is essential to protect it, this land may also be protected. Such monuments in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
are officially called scheduled monuments and come under the protection of the Department for Communities , a department created by the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive in May 2016. Previously, scheduled monuments in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
were under the protection of the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Environment Agency (N.I.E.A.), which was part of the former Department of the Environment (the D.o.E.)
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Catholic
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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