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Gestapo
The GESTAPO (German pronunciation: ( listen )), abbreviation of GEHEIME STAATSPOLIZEI, or the Secret State Police, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany
Germany
and German-occupied Europe . The force was created by Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia
Prussia
into one organization. Beginning on 20 April 1934 it passed to the administration of Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) national leader Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
, who in 1936 was appointed Chief of German Police (Chef der Deutschen Polizei) by Hitler, the Gestapo
Gestapo
at this time becoming a national rather than a Prussian state agency as a suboffice of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) ("Security Police")
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Prussia
PRUSSIA (/ˈprʌʃə/ ; German : Preußen (help ·info ) ) was a prominent historical German state originating out of the Duchy
Duchy
of Prussia
Prussia
and the Margraviate of Brandenburg , and centred on the region of Prussia
Prussia
. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg
Königsberg
and from 1701 in Berlin
Berlin
, shaped the history of Germany
Germany
. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire
German Empire
under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19
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Franking
FRANKING refers to any devices, markings, or combinations thereof ("FRANKS") applied to mails of any class which qualifies them to be postally serviced. Types of franks include uncanceled and precanceled postage stamps (both adhesive and printed on postal stationery ), impressions applied via postage meter (via so-called "postage evidencing systems"), official use "Penalty" franks, Business Reply Mail (BRM), and other permit Imprints (Indicia), manuscript and facsimile "franking privilege" signatures, "soldier's mail" markings, and any other forms authorized by the 191 postal administrations that are members of the Universal Postal Union
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Interior Minister
An INTERIOR MINISTRY (sometimes MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS or MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing , emergency management , national security , registration, supervision of local governments , conduct of elections , public administration and immigration matters. The ministry is often headed by a MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR or a MINISTER OF HOME AFFAIRS. In some countries, matters relating to the maintenance of law and order and the administration of justice are the responsibility of a separate justice ministry
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Luftwaffe
The LUFTWAFFE (German pronunciation: ( listen )) was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
military forces during World War II
World War II
. Germany 's military air arms during World War I
World War I
, the Luftstreitkräfte
Luftstreitkräfte
of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy , had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base . With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was officially established on 26 February 1935
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Secret Police
The term SECRET POLICE or COVERT POLICE FORCE refers to intelligence services , security services or police and law enforcement agencies which engage in covert, domestic law enforcement, intelligence, and counter-intelligence operations against a government's political opponents. The level of oversight with which they are governed varies by country and political system. Secret police
Secret police
organizations are often used by totalitarian states to protect the political power of an individual dictator or an authoritarian political regime by means of systematic engagement in extrajudicial activities. Secret police organisations are often utilised for the purposes of policing the activities of dissidents, and weakening opposition organisations. This is distinct from normal intelligence services which focus on the country's opponents irrespective of who is in government
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Chancellor Of Germany
The CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY is the head of government of Germany
Germany
. The official title in German is Bundeskanzler(in) (literally, Federal Chancellor), sometimes shortened to Kanzler(in). The term, dating from the early Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin term cancellarius. In German politics , the Chancellor
Chancellor
is equivalent to that of a prime minister in many other countries. German has two equivalent translations of prime minister, Premierminister and Ministerpräsident. While Premierminister usually refers to heads of governments of foreign countries (e.g., the United Kingdom ), Ministerpräsident may also refer to the heads of government of most German states . The current Chancellor
Chancellor
is Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
, who is serving her third term in office
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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State Political Directorate
The STATE POLITICAL DIRECTORATE (also translated as the STATE POLITICAL ADMINISTRATION) (GPU) was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until November 15, 1923. CONTENTS * 1 Establishment * 2 Mission * 3 Disestablishment * 4 Personnel * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ESTABLISHMENTFormed from the Cheka
Cheka
, the original Russian state security organization, on February 6, 1922, it was initially known under the Russian abbreviation GPU—short for "State Political Directorate under the NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR" (Russian : Государственное политическое управление при НКВД РСФСР, Gosudarstvennoye politicheskoye upravlenie under the NKVD of the RSFSR")
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Blank Cheque
A BLANK CHEQUE (US: BLANK CHECK) or CARTE BLANCHE, in the literal sense, is a cheque that has no numerical value written in, but is already signed. In the figurative sense, it is used to describe a situation in which an agreement has been made that is open-ended or vague, and therefore subject to abuse, or in which a party is willing to consider any expense in the pursuance of their goals. CONTENTS * 1 Literal meaning * 2 Metaphorical meaning * 2.1 In politics * 2.2 In literature * 3 See also * 4 References LITERAL MEANING Cheque
Cheque
writers are advised to specify the amount of the cheque before signing it. A blank cheque can be extremely dangerous for its owner, because whomever obtains the cheque could write in any amount of money , and would be able to cash it (to the extent that the checking account contains sufficient funds, and depending on the laws in the specific country)
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Judicial Review
JUDICIAL REVIEW is a process under which executive and (in some countries) legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary . The power of courts to assess whether a law is in compliance with the constitution. A court with judicial review power may invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority; an executive decision may be invalidated for being unlawful or a statute may be invalidated for violating the terms of a written constitution . Judicial review is one of the checks and balances in the separation of powers : the power of the judiciary to supervise the legislative and executive branches when the latter exceed their authority. The doctrine varies between jurisdictions, so the procedure and scope of judicial review may differ between and within countries
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Sabotage
SABOTAGE is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity or corporation through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction. In a workplace setting, sabotage is the conscious withdrawal of efficiency generally directed at causing some change in workplace conditions. One who engages in sabotage is a saboteur. Saboteurs typically try to conceal their identities because of the consequences of their actions. Any unexplained adverse condition might be sabotage. Sabotage
Sabotage
is sometimes called tampering, meddling, tinkering, malicious pranks, malicious hacking, a practical joke or the like to avoid needing to invoke legal and organizational requirements for addressing sabotage
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Treason
In law , TREASON is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign . Historically, treason also covered the murder of specific social superiors, such as the murder of a husband by his wife or that of a master by his servant. Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a lesser superior was petty treason . A person who commits treason is known in law as a TRAITOR. Oran's Dictionary of the Law
Law
(1983) defines treason as a "citizen 's actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against, or seriously injure the ". In many nations, it is also often considered treason to attempt or conspire to overthrow the government, even if no foreign country is aiding or involved by such an endeavor. At times, the term "traitor" has been used as a political epithet , regardless of any verifiable treasonable action
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Marinus Van Der Lubbe
MARINUS (RINUS) VAN DER LUBBE (13 January 1909 – 10 January 1934) was a Dutch council communist tried, convicted and executed for setting fire to the German Reichstag building
Reichstag building
on 27 February 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire
Reichstag fire
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Reichstag fire
Reichstag fire
* 3 Responsibility for the Reichstag Fire 1933 * 4 In popular culture * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHY Marinus van der Lubbe
Marinus van der Lubbe
was born in Leiden
Leiden
in the province of South Holland . He was born with learning difficulties. His parents were divorced and, after his mother died when he was 12, he went to live with his half-sister's family. In his youth, van der Lubbe worked as a bricklayer
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Bavaria
Anthem: Bayernhymne
Bayernhymne
(German ) "Hymn of Bavaria" Coordinates: 48°46′39″N 11°25′52″E / 48.77750°N 11.43111°E / 48.77750; 11.43111 COUNTRY Germany
Germany

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Gruppenführer
GRUPPENFüHRER (literally "group leader") was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP), first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA . The term Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
is also used for leaders of groups/teams of the police, fire departments, and several other organizations. In 1930, Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
became an SS rank and was originally bestowed upon those officers who commanded SS-Gruppen and also upon senior officers of the SS command staff. In 1932, the SS was reorganized and the SS-Gruppen were reformed into SS-Abschnitte . A Gruppenführer commanded an SS-Abschnitt while a new rank, that of Obergruppenführer , oversaw the SS-Oberabschnitte which were the largest SS units in Germany
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