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George Gershwin
GEORGE JACOB GERSHWIN (/ˈɡɜːrʃ.wɪn/ ; September 26, 1898 – July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist . Gershwin's compositions spanned both popular and classical genres, and his most popular melodies are widely known. Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and An American in Paris
Paris
(1928) as well as the opera Porgy and Bess (1935). Gershwin studied piano under Charles Hambitzer and composition with Rubin Goldmark , Henry Cowell and Joseph Brody. He began his career as a song plugger , but soon started composing Broadway theatre
Broadway theatre
works with his brother Ira Gershwin and Buddy DeSylva
Buddy DeSylva

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Vilnius
VILNIUS (Lithuanian pronunciation: ( listen ), see also other names ) is the capital of Lithuania
Lithuania
and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015 . Vilnius
Vilnius
is located in the southeast part of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is the second largest city in the Baltic states
Baltic states
. Vilnius
Vilnius
is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania as well as of the Vilnius District Municipality
Vilnius District Municipality
. Vilnius
Vilnius
is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC
GaWC
studies, and is known for the architecture in its Old Town , declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 1994
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Extra (actor)
A BACKGROUND ACTOR or EXTRA is a performer in a film , television show , stage, musical, opera or ballet production, who appears in a nonspeaking or nonsinging (silent) capacity, usually in the background (for example, in an audience or busy street scene). War films and epic films often employ background actors in large numbers: some films have featured hundreds or even thousands of paid background actors as cast members (hence the term "cast of thousands"). Likewise, grand opera can involve many background actors appearing in spectacular productions. On a film or TV set, background actors are usually referred to as "background talent", "background performers", "background artists", "background cast members" or simply "background", while the term "extra" is rarely used. In a stage production, background actors are commonly referred to as "supernumeraries ". In opera and ballet, they are called either "extras" or "supers"
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Saint Petersburg
SAINT PETERSBURG (Russian : Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: ( listen )) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow
Moscow
, with five million inhabitants in 2012. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city ). Situated on the Neva River , at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great on May 27 1703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint
Saint
Petersburg to PETROGRAD (Russian : Петрогра́д, IPA: ), in 1924 to LENINGRAD (Russian : Ленингра́д, IPA: ), and in 1991 back to Saint Petersburg. Between 1713 and 1728 and in 1732–1918, Saint
Saint
Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia
Russia

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Imperial Russian Army
The IMPERIAL RUSSIAN ARMY (Russian : Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars (mostly Cossacks
Cossacks
). The last living veteran of the Russian Imperial Army was the Ukrainian supercentenarian Mikhail Krichevsky , who died in 2008
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Glioblastoma Multiforme
GLIOBLASTOMA, also known as GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME (GBM), is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain . Initially, signs and symptoms of glioblastoma are non-specific. They may include headaches , personality changes, nausea , and symptoms similar to those of a stroke . Worsening of symptoms often is rapid. This may progress to unconsciousness . The cause of most cases is unclear. Uncommon risk factors include genetic disorders such as neurofibromatosis and Li–Fraumeni syndrome and, previous radiation therapy . Glioblastomas represent 15% of brain tumors . They can either start from normal brain cells or develop from an existing low-grade astrocytoma . The diagnosis typically is made by a combination of CT scan
CT scan
, MRI
MRI
scan , and tissue biopsy . There is no clear way to prevent the disease. Typically, treatment involves surgery , after which chemotherapy and radiation therapy are used
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Russian Jews
JEWS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
at one time hosted the largest population of Jews
Jews
in the world . Within these territories the primarily Ashkenazi Jewish communities of many different areas flourished and developed many of modern Judaism's most distinctive theological and cultural traditions, while also facing periods of anti-Semitic discriminatory policies and persecutions. The largest group among Russian Jews
Jews
are Ashkenazi Jews, but the community also includes a significant number of other Diasporan Jewish groups, such as Mountain Jews , Sephardic Jews (of Iberian ancestry), Crimean Karaites , Krymchaks
Krymchaks
, Bukharan Jews , and Georgian Jews
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Ragtime
RAGTIME – also spelled RAG-TIME or RAG TIME – is a musical style that enjoyed its peak popularity between 1895 and 1918. Its cardinal trait is its syncopated , or "ragged", rhythm. The style has its origins in African-American
African-American
communities in cities such as St. Louis
St. Louis
years before being published as popular sheet music for piano. Ernest Hogan (1865–1909) was a pioneer of ragtime and was the first composer to have his ragtime pieces (or "rags") published as sheet music, beginning with the song "LA Pas Ma LA," published in 1895. Hogan has also been credited for coining the term ragtime. The term is actually derived from his hometown "Shake Rag" in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Ben Harney , another Kentucky native, has often been credited for introducing the music to the mainstream public
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Aeolian Company
THE ÆOLIAN COMPANY was a manufacturer of player organs and pianos . They created Vocalion Records
Vocalion Records
and operated the label from 1917 to December 1924. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Location * 2 Copyright law * 3 References HISTORYThe Aeolian Company
Aeolian Company
was founded by New York City
New York City
piano maker William B. Tremaine as the Æolian Organ & Music Co. (1887) to make automatic organs and, after 1895, as the Æolian Co. automatic pianos as well. He had previously founded the Mechanical Orguinette Co. in 1878 to manufacture automated reed organs. The manufacture of residence or "chamber" organs to provide entertainment in the mansions of millionaires was an extremely profitable undertaking, and Aeolian virtually cornered the market in this trade, freeing them from the tight competition of church-organ building with its narrow profit margins
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Nora Bayes
NORA BAYES (October 8, 1880 – March 19, 1928) was a popular American singer , comedian and actress of the early 20th century. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and career * 2 Marriages and family * 3 Death * 4 Pop culture * 5 Selected songs * 6 References * 7 Listen to * 8 External links EARLY LIFE AND CAREERBorn Eleanora Sarah Goldberg to Elias and Rachel (née Miller) Goldberg, with "Dora" being a pet or nickname, to a Jewish
Jewish
family in Joliet, Illinois
Joliet, Illinois
; she had a brother, Harry, and a sister, Mrs. Ida Klein. Bayes was performing professionally in vaudeville in Chicago
Chicago
by age 18. She toured from San Francisco, California
San Francisco, California
to New York City
New York City
and became a star both on the vaudeville circuit and the Broadway stage . In 1908, she married singer-songwriter Jack Norworth
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Louise Dresser
LOUISE DRESSER (October 17, 1878 – April 24, 1965) was an American actress. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Career * 3 Recognition * 4 Personal life * 5 Filmography * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY YEARSBorn LOUISE JOSEPHINE KERLIN in Evansville, Indiana
Evansville, Indiana
. Her father was a train conductor who died when she was 15 years old. CAREERDresser took her professional last name as a tribute to her good friend, songwriter Paul Dresser , who was a popular songwriter of the turn of the 20th century. She had acted on the stage, being a Vaudeville
Vaudeville
singer at age 15. Her first film was The Glory of Clementina (1922), and her first starring role was in The City that Never Sleeps (1924). She portrayed Empress Elizabeth
Empress Elizabeth
in Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
's The Scarlet Empress (1934)
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Vaudeville
VAUDEVILLE (/ˈvɔːdvɪl, -dəvɪl/ ; French: ) is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment . It was especially popular in the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
from the early 1880s until the early 1930s. A typical vaudeville performance was made up of a series of separate, unrelated acts grouped together on a common bill. Types of acts have included popular and classical musicians , singers, dancers , comedians , trained animals , magicians , strongmen , female and male impersonators, acrobats , illustrated songs , jugglers , one-act plays or scenes from plays, athletes , lecturing celebrities , minstrels , and movies . A vaudeville performer is often referred to as a "vaudevillian". Vaudeville
Vaudeville
developed from many sources, including the concert saloon , minstrelsy , freak shows , dime museums , and literary American burlesque
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Reproducing Piano
A PLAYER PIANO (also known as PIANOLA) is a self-playing piano , containing a pneumatic or electro-mechanical mechanism that operates the piano action via pre-programmed music recorded on perforated paper, or in rare instances, metallic rolls , with more modern implementations using MIDI
MIDI
. The rise of the player piano grew with the rise of the mass-produced piano for the home in the late 19th and early 20th century. Sales peaked in 1924, then declined as the improvement in phonograph recordings due to electrical recording methods developed in the mid-1920s. The advent of electrical amplification in home music reproduction via radio in the same period helped cause their eventual decline in popularity, and the stock market crash of 1929 virtually wiped out production
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Welte-Mignon
M. WELTE max-width:224px"> 1862 International Exhibition London : The Orchestrion by M. Welte, of Vöhrenbach , in the Zollverein division. ( The Illustrated London News
The Illustrated London News
, Sept. 20, 1862.) From 1832 until 1932, the firm produced mechanical musical instruments of the highest quality. The firm's founder, Michael Welte (1807-1880), and his company were prominent in the technical development and construction of orchestrions from 1850, until the early 20th century. In 1872, the firm moved from the remote Black Forest
Black Forest
town of Vöhrenbach into a newly developed business complex beneath the main railway station in Freiburg , Germany
Germany
. They created an epoch-making development when they substituted the playing gear of their instruments from fragile wood pinned cylinders to perforated paper rolls
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (French pronunciation: ​ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city in France
France
, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015). The city is a commune and department , and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de- France
France
region (colloquially known as the ' Paris
Paris
Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France. Since the 17th century, Paris
Paris
has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts
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Film Score
A FILM SCORE (also sometimes called BACKGROUND SCORE, BACKGROUND MUSIC, MOVIE SOUNDTRACK, FILM MUSIC or INCIDENTAL MUSIC) is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack , which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects , and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental, or choral pieces called cues , which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question. Scores are written by one or more composers , under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film's director or producer and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer . Film
Film
scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany
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