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Geographic Coordinates
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Book Of The Description Of The Earth
MUḥAMMAD IBN MūSā AL-KHWāRIZMī (Persian : محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algoritmi, was a Persian Muslim
Muslim
scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad
Baghdad
who produced works in mathematics , astronomy , and geography during the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
. In the 12th century, Latin
Latin
translations of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world. Al-Khwārizmī's The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic
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Muḥammad Ibn Mūsā Al-Khwārizmī
MUḥAMMAD IBN MūSā AL-KHWāRIZMī (Persian : محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algoritmi, was a Persian Muslim
Muslim
scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad
Baghdad
who produced works in mathematics , astronomy , and geography during the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
. In the 12th century, Latin
Latin
translations of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world. Al-Khwārizmī's The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic
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Mediterranean Sea
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia
Anatolia
, on the south by North Africa
North Africa
, and on the east by the Levant
Levant
. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis , before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago
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Medieval Arabic Cartography
MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC GEOGRAPHY was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
in the 12th century. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Legacy * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 Notes and references * 6 External links HISTORYAfter its beginnings in the 8th century based on Hellenistic geography, Islamic geography was patronized by the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs of Baghdad
Baghdad
. Various Islamic scholars contributed to its development, and the most notable include Al-Khwārizmī , Abū Zayd al-Balkhī (founder of the "Balkhi school"), and Abu Rayhan Biruni
Abu Rayhan Biruni
. : ) Islamic cartographers inherited Ptolemy's Almagest
Almagest
and Geography in the 9th century. These works stimulated an interest in geography (particularly gazetteers) but were not slavishly followed
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Maximus Planudes
MAXIMUS PLANUDES (Greek : Μάξιμος Πλανούδης, Máximos Planoúdēs; c. 1260 – c. 1305) was a Byzantine
Byzantine
Greek monk, scholar, anthologist, translator, grammarian and theologian at Constantinople. Through his translations from Latin
Latin
into Greek and from Greek into Latin
Latin
he brought the Greek East and the Latin
Latin
West into closer contact with one another. He is now best known as a compiler of the Greek Anthology
Greek Anthology
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Notes * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHY Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
lived during the reigns of the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors Michael VIII and Andronikos II
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Arabic Language
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world
Arab world
. It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula . The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Equator
An EQUATOR is the intersection of the surface of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet ) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles . On Earth
Earth
, the Equator
Equator
is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles , dividing the Earth
Earth
into Northern and Southern Hemispheres . It is about 40,075 kilometres (24,901 mi) long, of which 78.7% lies across water and 21.3% over land
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Asia Minor
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 The traditional definition of Anatolia
Anatolia
within modern Turkey
Turkey
ANATOLIA (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ – "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern Turkish : Anadolu), in geography known as ASIA MINOR (from Greek : Μικρὰ Ἀσία Mīkrá Asía – "small Asia"; in modern Turkish : Küçük Asya), ASIAN TURKEY, ANATOLIAN PENINSULA, or ANATOLIAN PLATEAU, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia , which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey
Turkey
. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Ptolemy
CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (/ˈtɒləmi/ ; Greek : Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos ; Latin : Claudius Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170) was a mathematician , astronomer , geographer , astrologer , and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology . He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt
Egypt
, wrote in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, and held Roman citizenship . Beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in an uncorroborated statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes . This is a very late attestation, however, and there is no other reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria, where he died around AD 168
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Midsummer
MIDSUMMER, also known as ST JOHN\'S DAY, is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice , and more specifically the northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening. The exact dates vary between different cultures. The Christian Church designated June 24 as the feast day of the early Christian martyr St John the Baptist
John the Baptist
, and the observance of St John's Day begins the evening before, known as St John\'s Eve . These are commemorated by many Christian denominations . In Sweden the Midsummer
Midsummer
is such an important festivity that there have been serious discussions to make the Midsummer's Eve into the National Day of Sweden
Sweden
, instead of June 6. It may also be referred to as St. Hans Day
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Ptolemy's Geography
The GEOGRAPHY (Greek : Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, lit. "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin
Latin
names as the GEOGRAPHIA and the COSMOGRAPHIA, is a gazetteer , an atlas , and a treatise on cartography , compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Originally written by Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
in Greek at Alexandria
Alexandria
around AD 150, the work was a revision of a now-lost atlas by Marinus of Tyre using additional Roman and Persian gazetteers and new principles. Its translation into Arabic in the 9th century and Latin
Latin
in 1406 was highly influential on the geographical knowledge and cartographic traditions of the medieval Caliphate
Caliphate
and Renaissance
Renaissance
Europe
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Republic Of Florence
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Greenwich Mean Time
GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
Greenwich
, London
London
. GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) . Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes
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Brazil
Coordinates : 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52 Federative Republic
Republic
of Brazil República Federativa do Brasil (Portuguese ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Ordem e Progresso (Portuguese) * (English: "Order and Progress") ANTHEM: * "Hino Nacional Brasileiro " * (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")* ------------------------- * FLAG ANTHEM: * Hino à Bandeira Nacional * (English: "National Flag Anthem")* NATIONAL SEAL * Selo Nacional do Brasil * National
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