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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Fortunate Isles
The Fortunate Isles
Fortunate Isles
or Isles of the Blessed[1][2] (Greek: μακάρων νῆσοι, makárōn nêsoi) were semi-legendary islands in the Atlantic Ocean, variously treated as a simple geographical location and as a winterless earthly paradise inhabited by the heroes of Greek mythology
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Lunar Eclipse
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon
Moon
passes directly behind Earth
Earth
and into its shadow. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are aligned (in syzygy) exactly or very closely so, with the planet in between. Hence, a lunar eclipse can occur only on the night of a full moon. The type and length of an eclipse depend on the Moon's proximity to either node of its orbit. During a total lunar eclipse, Earth
Earth
completely blocks direct sunlight from reaching the Moon. The only light reflected from the lunar surface has been refracted by Earth's atmosphere. This light appears reddish for the same reason that a sunset or sunrise does: the Rayleigh scattering
Rayleigh scattering
of bluer light
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Jacobus Angelus
Giacomo or Jacopo d'Angelo,[1] better known by his Latin
Latin
name Jacobus Angelus, was an Italian scholar and humanist during the Renaissance. Named for the village of Scarperia
Scarperia
in the Mugello in the Republic of Florence, he traveled to Venice where Manuel Palaeologus's ambassador Manuel Chrysoloras
Manuel Chrysoloras
was teaching Greek, the first such course in Italy for several centuries.[citation needed] Da Scarperia
Scarperia
returned with Chrysoloras to Constantinople
Constantinople
(Istanbul)—the first Florentine to do so—along with Guarino da Verona
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
(Greek: Μάξιμος Πλανούδης, Máximos Planoúdēs; c. 1260 – c. 1305)[1] was a Byzantine
Byzantine
Greek monk, scholar, anthologist, translator, grammarian and theologian at Constantinople. Through his translations from Latin
Latin
into Greek and from Greek into Latin
Latin
he brought the Greek East and the Latin
Latin
West into closer contact with one another. He is now best known as a compiler of the Greek Anthology.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
lived during the reigns of the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors Michael VIII and Andronikos II
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Medieval Arabic Cartography
Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography
Hellenistic geography
and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
in the 12th century.Contents1 History 2 Legacy 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 External linksHistory[edit] After its beginnings in the 8th century based on Hellenistic geography,[1] Islamic geography was patronized by the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs of Baghdad. Various Islamic scholars contributed to its development, and the most notable include Al-Khwārizmī, Abū Zayd al-Balkhī (founder of the "Balkhi school"), and Abu Rayhan Biruni. Islamic cartographers inherited Ptolemy's Almagest
Almagest
and Geography in the 9th century
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Book Of The Description Of The Earth
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[note 1] (Persian: محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algoritmi,[note 2] was a Persian[3][4] scholar who produced works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography under the patronage of the Caliph Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
of the Abbasid Caliphate.[5]:668 Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
in Baghdad.[6]:14 Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, ca. 813-833 CE[7]:171) presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic
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Muḥammad Ibn Mūsā Al-Khwārizmī
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[note 1] (Persian: محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algoritmi,[note 2] was a Persian[3][4] scholar who produced works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography under the patronage of the Caliph Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
of the Abbasid Caliphate.[5]:668 Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
in Baghdad.[6]:14 Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, ca. 813-833 CE[7]:171) presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Equator
An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere (such as a planet) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles. On Earth, the Equator
Equator
is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles, dividing the Earth
Earth
into Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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Midsummer
Midsummer, also known as Saint John's Day, is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, and more specifically the northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening. The exact dates vary between different cultures. The undivided Christian Church designated June 24 as the feast day of the early Christian martyr St John the Baptist, and the observance of St John's Day begins the evening before, known as St John's Eve. These are commemorated by many Christian denominations, such as the Roman Catholic Church, Lutheran Churches, and Anglican Communion.[1][7] In Sweden
Sweden
the Midsummer
Midsummer
is such an important festivity that there have been serious discussions to make the Midsummer's Eve into the National Day of Sweden, instead of June 6. It may also be referred to as St
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Ptolemy
Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́ːos]; Latin: Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170)[2] was a Greco-Roman[3] mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[4][5] He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship.[6] The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
(Greek: Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Greek: Θηβαΐδα [Θηβαΐς])
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Equirectangular Projection
The equirectangular projection (also called the equidistant cylindrical projection, geographic projection, or la carte parallélogrammatique projection, and which includes the special case of the plate carrée projection or geographic projection) is a simple map projection attributed to Marinus of Tyre, who Ptolemy
Ptolemy
claims invented the projection about AD 100.[1] The projection maps meridians to vertical straight lines of constant spacing (for meridional intervals of constant spacing), and circles of latitude to horizontal straight lines of constant spacing (for constant intervals of parallels). The projection is neither equal area nor conformal. Because of the distortions introduced by this projection, it has little use in navigation or cadastral mapping and finds its main use in thematic mapping
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International Meridian Conference
The International Meridian Conference
International Meridian Conference
was a conference held in October 1884 in Washington, D.C., in the United States, to determine a prime meridian for international use.[1] The conference was held at the request of U.S. President Chester A. Arthur. The subject to discuss was the choice of "a meridian to be employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning throughout the world".[1] It resulted in selection of the Greenwich Meridian
Greenwich Meridian
as the international standard for zero degrees longitude.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Participants 3 Resolutions 4 Delegates 5 Outcomes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBackground[edit] By the 1870s there was pressure both to establish a prime meridian for worldwide navigation purposes and to unify local times for railway timetables
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Dead Reckoning
The navigator plots their 9am position, indicated by the triangle, and, using their course and speed, estimates their own position at 9:30am and 10am.In navigation, dead reckoning is the process of calculating one's current position by using a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time and course. The corresponding term in biology, used to describe the processes by which animals update their estimates of position or heading, is path integration.Drift is the angle between the heading of the airplane and the desired track. A is the last known position (fix, usually shown with a circle). B is the air position (usually shown with a plus sign). C is the DR position (usually shown with a triangle). Dead reckoning
Dead reckoning
is subject to cumulative errors
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