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French Revolution
The FRENCH REVOLUTION (French : Révolution française ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire . The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe
Europe
and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution
Revolution
profoundly altered the course of modern history , triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies
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Democratic Revolution
A DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION is a political science term denoting a revolution in which a democracy is instituted, replacing a previous non-democratic government, or in which revolutionary change is brought about through democratic means, usually without violence
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Francia
FRANCIA or FRANKIA, also called the KINGDOM OF THE FRANKS ( Latin
Latin
: Regnum Francorum), FRANKISH KINGDOM, FRANKISH EMPIRE, FRANKISH REALM or occasionally FRANKLAND, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks
Franks
, a confederation of West Germanic tribes , during late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The kingdom was founded by Clovis I
Clovis I
, crowned first King of the Franks
Franks
in 496. Under the nearly continuous campaigns of Pepin of Herstal , Charles Martel
Charles Martel
, Pepin the Short , Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, and Louis the Pious —father, son, grandson, great-grandson and great-great-grandson—the greatest expansion of the Frankish empire was secured by the early 9th century
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Boycott
A BOYCOTT is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for social , political , or environmental reasons. The purpose of a boycott is to inflict some economic loss on the target, or to indicate a moral outrage, to try to compel the target to alter an objectionable behavior. Sometimes, a boycott can be a form of consumer activism , sometimes called moral purchasing . When a similar practice is legislated by a national government, it is known as a sanction . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Notable boycotts * 3 Application and uses * 4 Collective Behavior * 5 Legality * 5.1 United States * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References ETYMOLOGY Vanity Fair caricature of Charles C
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List Of French Monarchs
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
and its predecessors ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks
Franks
in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire
Second French Empire
in 1870. Sometimes included as "kings of France" are the kings of the Franks of the Merovingian dynasty
Merovingian dynasty
, which ruled from 486 until 751, and of the Carolingians , who ruled until 987 (with some interruptions). The Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty
, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet , included the first rulers to adopt the title of KING OF FRANCE for the first time with Philip II (r. 1180–1223). The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848
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Carolingian Dynasty
Non-agnatic lines: * Robertian dynasty * House of Capet
House of Capet
* Bosonid dynasty CAROLINGIAN DYNASTY PIPPINIDS * Pippin the Elder (c. 580–640) * Grimoald (616–656) * Childebert the Adopted (d. 662) ARNULFINGS * Arnulf of Metz
Arnulf of Metz
(582–640) * Ansegisel
Ansegisel
(d. 662 or 679) * Chlodulf of Metz
Chlodulf of Metz
(d. 696 or 697) * Pepin of Herstal
Pepin of Herstal
(635-714) * Grimoald II (d. 714) * Drogo of Champagne (670–708) * Theudoald (d. 741) CAROLINGIANS * Charles Martel (686–741) * Carloman (d
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Franks
The FRANKS ( Latin
Latin
: Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
that originated in the lands between the Lower and Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
in the 3rd century AD and eventually formed a large empire dominating much of western and central Europe during the Middle Ages. The Frankish
Frankish
Empire ultimately led to the birth of modern France and Germany
Germany
and thus the Franks
Franks
are seen as the forebears of the French and German peoples (in addition to Austrians, the Dutch, Luxembourgers and some other European nations). During ancient times some Franks
Franks
raided Roman territory, while other Frankish
Frankish
tribes joined the Roman troops of Gaul
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Permanent Revolution
PERMANENT REVOLUTION is a term within Marxist
Marxist
theory , established in usage by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
by at least 1850 but which has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
. The use of the term by different theorists is not identical. Marx used it to describe the strategy of a revolutionary class to continue to pursue its class interests independently and without compromise, despite overtures for political alliances, and despite the political dominance of opposing sections of society. Trotsky put forward his conception of "permanent revolution" as an explanation of how socialist revolutions could occur in societies that had not achieved advanced capitalism . Part of his theory is the supposed impossibility of "socialism in one country "
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Provisional Government Of The French Republic
The PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France
France
after Operations Overlord and Dragoon , and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic
French Fourth Republic
. Its establishment marked the official restoration and re-establishment of a provisional French Republic, assuring continuity with the defunct French Third Republic
French Third Republic
. It succeeded the French Committee of National Liberation (CFLN), which had been the provisional government of France
France
in the overseas territories and metropolitan parts of the country (Algeria and Corsica) that had been liberated by the Free French
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Merovingian Dynasty
The MEROVINGIANS (/ˌmɛroʊˈvɪndʒiən/ ) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks
Franks
for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia
Francia
in Latin
Latin
, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul
Gaul
as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia
Raetia
, Germania Superior
Germania Superior
and the southern part of Germania
Germania
. The Merovingian dynasty
Merovingian dynasty
was founded by Childeric I
Childeric I
(c. 457 – 481), the son of Merovech , leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I
Clovis I
(481–511) who united all of Gaul
Gaul
under Merovingian rule
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France In The Twentieth Century
The HISTORY OF FRANCE from 1914 to the present includes: * the later years of the Third Republic (1871–1941) * World War I
World War I
(1914–18) * Interwar Period
Interwar Period
(1918-1939)
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France In The Middle Ages
The Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(roughly, from the 5th century to the middle of the 15th century; for the period before Hugh Capet 's accession to the throne, see
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French Fourth Republic
The FRENCH FOURTH REPUBLIC was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic , which was in place before World War II
World War II
, and suffered many of the same problems. France
France
adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France
France
and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after World War II, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration which changed the continent permanently. The greatest accomplishments of the Fourth Republic were in social reform and economic development
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House Of Capet
The HOUSE OF CAPET or the DIRECT CAPETIANS (French : Les Capétiens directs, la Maison capétienne), also called the HOUSE OF FRANCE (la maison de France), or simply THE CAPETS, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians . Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France
France
and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice (see House of France ). They were sometimes called "THE THIRD RACE OF KINGS", the Merovingians being the first, and the Carolingians being the second. The name is derived from the nickname of Hugh , the first Capetian King, who was known as Hugh Capet. The direct succession of French kings, father to son, from 987 to 1316, of thirteen generations in almost 330 years, was unparallelled in recorded history
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French Fifth Republic
The FIFTH REPUBLIC, France
France
's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic
Republic
on 4 October 1958. The Fifth Republic
Republic
emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic
Republic
, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential , or dual-executive, system that split powers between a prime minister as head of government and a president as head of state . De Gaulle, who was the first president elected under the Fifth Republic
Republic
in December 1958, believed in a strong head of state, which he described as embodying l'esprit de la nation ("the spirit of the nation")
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Roman Gaul
ROMAN GAUL refers to Gaul
Gaul
under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD. The Roman Republic
Roman Republic
began its takeover of Celtic Gaul
Gaul
in 121 BC, when it conquered and annexed the southern reaches of the area. Julius Caesar significantly advanced the task by defeating the Celtic tribes in the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
of 58-51 BC . In 22 BC, imperial administration of Gaul
Gaul
was reorganized, establishing the provinces of Gallia Aquitania , Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and Gallia Lugdunensis . Parts of eastern Gaul
Gaul
were incorporated into the provinces Raetia (15 BC) and Germania
Germania
Superior (AD 83)
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