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French Government
The GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC (French : Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power. It is composed of a prime minister, who is the head of government , and both junior and senior ministers . Senior ministers are titled as Ministers (French : Ministres), whereas junior ministers are titled as Secretaries of State (French : Secrétaires d'État). A smaller and more powerful executive body, called the COUNCIL OF MINISTERS (French : Conseil des ministres), is composed only of the senior ministers, though some Secretaries of State may attend Council meetings. The Council of Ministers is chaired by the President of the Republic , unlike the government, but is still led by the Prime Minister, who was officially titled as the President of the Council of Ministers (French : Président du Conseil des ministres) during the Third and Fourth Republics
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Parliament Of France
The FRENCH PARLIAMENT (French : Parlement
Parlement
français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic , consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale). Each assembly conducts legislative sessions at a separate location in Paris: the Palais du Luxembourg for the Senate and the Palais Bourbon
Palais Bourbon
for the National Assembly. Each house has its own regulations and rules of procedure. However, they may occasionally meet as a single house, the French Congress (Congrès du Parlement
Parlement
français), convened at the Palace of Versailles , to revise and amend the Constitution of France
France

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Journal Officiel De La République Française
The JOURNAL OFFICIEL DE LA RéPUBLIQUE FRANçAISE (JORF or JO) is the official gazette of the French Republic . It publishes the major legal official information from the national Government of France
France
. CONTENTS * 1 Publications * 2 Service * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PUBLICATIONSThe journal consists of several publications: * The best known is the "Laws and Decrees" (Journal officiel lois et décrets). It publishes all statutes and decrees, as well as some other administrative decisions
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Bill (law)
A BILL is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature . A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature and, in most cases, approved by the executive . Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called an Act or a statute . CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Preparation * 3 Introduction * 4 Legislative stages * 5 Enactment and after * 5.1 Approval * 5.2 Afterwards * 6 Numbering of bills * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links * 9.1 Hong Kong * 9.2 India * 9.3 New Zealand * 9.4 United Kingdom * 9.5 United States USAGEThe term bill is primarily used in the United States and the Commonwealth . In the United Kingdom, the subparts of a bill are known as clauses while the subparts of an Act are known as sections. PREPARATIONThe preparation of a bill may involve the production of a DRAFT BILL prior to the introduction of the bill into the legislature
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Constitution Of The French Fifth Republic
The current CONSTITUTION OF FRANCE was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is typically called the CONSTITUTION OF THE FIFTH REPUBLIC, and replaced that of the Fourth Republic dating from 1946. Charles de Gaulle was the main driving force in introducing the new constitution and inaugurating the Fifth Republic , while the text was drafted by Michel Debré . Since then the constitution has been amended twenty-four times, most recently in 2008 . CONTENTS * 1 Summary * 2 Impact on personal freedoms * 2.1 "Constitutional block" * 3 Amendments * 4 Past constitutions * 5 See also * 6 Notes and references * 7 Further reading * 8 External links SUMMARYThe preamble of the constitution recalls the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 and establishes France
France
as a secular and democratic country, deriving its sovereignty from the people
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Minister Of State
MINISTER OF STATE is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system . In some countries a "Minister of State" is a junior minister , who is assigned to assist a specific cabinet minister. In other countries a "Minister of State" is a holder of a more senior position, such as a cabinet minister or even a head of government . CONTENTS * 1 High government ranks * 2 Minor government ranks * 3 Subnational office * 4 Other use * 4.1 Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
* 4.2 New Zealand * 4.3 Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
France
France
* 4.4 British diplomacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HIGH GOVERNMENT RANKSIn several national traditions, the title "Minister of State" is reserved for government members of Cabinet rank , often a formal distinction within it, or even its chief
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Ministry (government Department)
A MINISTRY is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister , that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration . Ministries have a bureaucratic structure. Different states have different numbers and names of ministries, but the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
notes that all states have (often under different names) a Ministry of Interior , a Ministry of Foreign Affairs , a Ministry of Defense (which may be divided into ministries for land forces and the navy), a Ministry of Justice and a Ministry of Finance . Ministries called the Ministry of Education or similar are also common
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Collegiality
COLLEGIALITY is the relationship between colleagues. Colleagues are those explicitly united in a common purpose and respecting each other's abilities to work toward that purpose. A colleague is an associate in a profession or in a civil or ecclesiastical office. Thus, the word collegiality can connote respect for another's commitment to the common purpose and ability to work toward it. In a narrower sense, members of the faculty of a university or college are each other's colleagues; very often the word is taken to mean that. Sometimes colleague is taken to mean a fellow member of the same profession. The word college is sometimes used in a broad sense to mean a group of colleagues united in a common purpose, and used in proper names, such as Electoral College
College
, College
College
of Cardinals , and College
College
of Pontiffs
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Élysée Palace
The ÉLYSéE PALACE (French : Palais de l'Élysée, pronounced ) has been the official residence of the President of France
France
since 1848. Dating to the early 18th century, it contains the office of the President and the meeting place of the Council of Ministers . It is located near the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris
Paris
, the name Élysée deriving from Elysian Fields , the place of the blessed dead in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
. Important foreign visitors are hosted at the nearby Hôtel de Marigny , a palatial residence. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 2.1 Ground floor * 2.2 First floor * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links HISTORY The Count of Évreux , by Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
, c. 1720. The Hôtel d'Évreux and it gardens c. 1737
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President Of The Senate Of France
The French senate
French senate
is the upper house of the French Parliament
French Parliament
. It is presided over by a president . Although there had been Senates in both the First and Second Empires, these had not technically been legislative bodies, but rather advisory bodies on the model of the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
. France's first experience with an upper house was under the Directory from 1795 to 1799, when the Council of Ancients
Council of Ancients
was the upper chamber. With the Restoration in 1814, a new Chamber of Peers was created, on the model of the British House of Lords
House of Lords
. At first it contained hereditary peers, but following the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830, it became a body to which one was appointed for life
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Separation Of Powers
The SEPARATION OF POWERS, often imprecisely and metonymically used interchangeably with the TRIAS POLITICA principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state). Under this model, the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature , an executive , and a judiciary , which is the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in some parliamentary systems where the executive and legislature (and sometimes parts of the judiciary) are unified. Separation of powers, therefore, refers to the division of responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another. The intent is to prevent the concentration of power and provide for checks and balances
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Motion Of Censure
A MOTION OF NO CONFIDENCE (alternatively VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE, NO-CONFIDENCE MOTION, or (UNSUCCESSFUL) CONFIDENCE MOTION) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental. As a parliamentary motion , it demonstrates to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in (one or more members of) the appointed government . A censure motion is different from a no-confidence motion. Depending on the constitution of the body concerned, "No Confidence" may lead to compulsory resignation of the council of ministers or other position-holder(s), whereas "Censure" is meant to show disapproval and does not result in the resignation of ministers
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Ministry Of Defence (France)
THE MINISTRY OF THE ARMED FORCES (French : Ministère des Armées) is the French department in charge of managing the French Armed Forces inside and outside French soil. It is an active member of NATO
NATO
and European Defence Community
European Defence Community
. The current Minister is Florence Parly . CONTENTS* 1 Organization * 1.1 Minister of the Armed Services * 1.2 Chief of Defence Staff * 1.3 SGA * 1.4 DGA * 2 Headquarters * 3 Notes and references ORGANIZATIONMINISTER OF THE ARMED SERVICESThe head of the department is the Minister of the Armed Services . She reports directly to the President of the Republic , the Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the French Armed Forces
French Armed Forces
. Her mission is to organize and manage the country Defense Policy in liaison with other departments
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Civil Service
The CIVIL SERVICE is a sector of government composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A CIVIL SERVANT or PUBLIC SERVANT is a person so employed in the public sector employed for a government department or agency. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown (national government) employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration . Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" (sometimes called "Quangos ") may also be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and possibly for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its civil service or public service
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Appropriation Bill
An APPROPRIATION BILL or RUNNING BILL or SUPPLY BILL is a legislative motion (bill ) that authorizes the government to spend money. It is a bill that sets money aside for specific spending. In most democracies, approval of the legislature is necessary for the government to spend money. In a Westminster parliamentary system , the defeat of an appropriation bill in a parliamentary vote generally necessitates either the resignation of a government or the calling of a general election . One of the more famous examples of the defeat of a supply bill was the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis , when the Senate , which was controlled by the opposition , refused to approve a package of appropriation and loan bills, prompting Governor-General Sir John Kerr to dismiss Prime Minister Gough Whitlam
Gough Whitlam
and appoint Malcolm Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister until the next election (where the Fraser government was elected)
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President Of The Republic (France)
The PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC (French : Président de la République française, French pronunciation: ​ ), is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic . In French terms, the Presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country. The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the Prime Minister and Cabinet has over time differed with the various French constitutions since 1848 (the final end of the French Monarchy ). The President of France is also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra , Grand Master of the Légion d\'honneur and the Ordre national du Mérite and honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome. The current president is Emmanuel Macron , succeeding François Hollande on 14 May 2017
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