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Foshan
Foshan, formerly romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong
Guangdong
Province in southeastern China
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Chinese Postal Map
The history of the postage stamps and postal history of China
China
is complicated by the gradual decay of Imperial China
China
and the years of civil war and Japanese occupation in the 1930s and 1940s.Contents1 Early history 2 Qing Dynasty 3 Republic of China3.1 Beiyang Government 3.2 Nationalist Government4 Manchukuo 5 People's Republic of China5.1 Postage stamps 5.2 Cultural Revolution 5.3 Postal service6 See also 7 References7.1 Citations 7.2 SourcesEarly history[edit]This 1-candareen stamp of 1885 has an unidentified seal cancellation and a postmark from the French post office in ShanghaiA 1/2-cent value of the 1897 issue, lithographed in Japan. Chinese: 大淸國郵政; pinyin: Dàqīngguó yóuzhèng Great Qing Land PostRegular government postal service is known from the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
in the 1st millennium BC
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Taiwanese Romanization System
The Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
(Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
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Chinese Postal Romanization
Postal romanization[1] was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained.[2] With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing pronunciation
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Bopomofo
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
(GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
[p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Yale Romanization Of Mandarin
The Yale romanization of Mandarin was developed in 1943 by the Yale sinologist George Kennedy to help prepare American soldiers to communicate with their Chinese allies on the battlefield. Rather than try to teach recruits to interpret the standard romanization of the time for Mandarin, the Wade–Giles system, a new system was invented that utilized the decoding skills that recruits would already know from having learned to read English, i.e. it used English spelling conventions to represent Chinese sounds. It avoided the main problems that the Wade–Giles system presented to the uninitiated student or news announcer trying to get somebody's name right in a public forum, because it did not use the spiritus asper (which looks like an apostrophe) to distinguish non-aspirated from aspirated initial sounds, such as jee from chee. In Wade–Giles, the first of those would be written chi and the second would be written ch'i
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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Postal Map Romanization
Postal romanization[1] was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained.[2] With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing pronunciation
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Romanization Of Chinese
The Romanization
Romanization
of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script, and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys."[1] However, Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
has become the international standard since 1982. Other well-known systems include Wade-Giles and Yale Romanization. There are many uses for Chinese Romanization. Most broadly, it is used to provide a useful way for foreigners who are not skilled at recognizing Chinese script a means to read and recognize Chinese names. Apart from this general role, it serves as a useful tool for foreign learners of Chinese by indicating the pronunciation of unfamiliar characters
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Prefecture (China)
A prefecture (from the Latin
Latin
Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.Contents1 Literal prefectures1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Ecclesiastic2 Analogous prefectures2.1 Brazilian equivalent of prefecture 2.2 Prefectures of the Central African Republic 2.3 Greek equivalent of prefecture 2.4 Chinese equivalents of prefecture2.4.1 The ancient sense 2.4.2 The modern sense2.5 Italian prefettura 2.6 French préfecture 2.7 Japanese sense of p
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Province Of China
ProvincesAutonomous regions Special
Special
administrative regionsSub-provincial levelSub-provincial citiesSub-provincial autonomous prefecturesSub-provincial city districtsPrefectural level (2nd) Prefectural citiesAutonomous prefecturesLeaguesPrefectures (abolishing)Sub-prefectural-levelSub-prefectural citiesProvincial-controlled citiesProvincial-controlled countiesProvincial-controlled districtsCounty level (3rd) CountiesAutonomous countiesCounty-level citiesDistricts Ethnic dist
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