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Forum Romanum
Coordinates: 41°53′32″N 12°29′07″E / 41.8922°N 12.4852°E / 41.8922; 12.4852This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Forum (Roman)
A forum ( Latin
Latin
forum "public place outdoors",[1] plural fora; English plural either fora or forums) was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls. Many fora were constructed at remote locations along a road by the magistrate responsible for the road, in which case the forum was the only settlement at the site and had its own name, such as Forum Popili or Forum Livi.[2]Contents1 The functions of a forum 2 Typical forum structures 3 Equivalent spaces in other cultures 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksThe functions of a forum[edit]The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. The columns mark the location of a stoa, or covered walkway, where the stalls of open-air vendors might be located in bad weather
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Plaza
A plaza /ˈplɑːzə/ or pedestrian plaza is an open urban public space, such as a city square.[1] Throughout Spanish America
Spanish America
and the Spanish East Indies, the plaza mayor of each center of administration held three closely related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be incorporated in a wing of a governor's palace, and the audiencia or law court. The plaza might be large enough to serve as a military parade ground. At times of crisis or fiesta, it was the space where a large crowd might gather. Like the Italian piazza, the plaza remains a center of community life that is only equaled by the market-place. Most colonial cities in Spanish America
Spanish America
and the Philippines
Philippines
were planned around a square plaza de armas, where troops could be mustered, as the name implies, surrounded by the governor's palace and the main church
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Cleopatra
Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
Philopator (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Philopator;[8] 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)[note 1] was a queen and last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
of Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion
Caesarion
for eighteen days. She was also a diplomat, naval commander, administrator, linguist, and medical author.[9] As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great
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Assassination Of Julius Caesar
The assassination of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.[1][2] They stabbed Julius Caesar to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey
Theatre of Pompey
on the Ides of March
Ides of March
(March 15), 44 BC. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic, having recently been declared dictator perpetuo by the Senate of the Roman Republic
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Theatre Of Pompey
The Theatre of Pompey
Pompey
(Latin: Theatrum Pompeii, Italian: Teatro di Pompeo) was a structure in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
built during the latter part of the Roman Republican era: completed in 55 BC. Enclosed by the large columned porticos was an expansive garden complex of fountains and statues. Along the stretch of the covered arcade were rooms dedicated to the exposition of art and other works collected by Pompey "the Great" (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) during his campaigns. On the opposite end of the garden complex was a curia for political meetings. The senate would often use this building along with a number of temples and halls that satisfied the requirements for their formal meetings
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First Triumvirate
The First Triumvirate
Triumvirate
is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was a prominent politician with the populares faction and was eventually renowned for his conquest of Gaul (58-50 BC). Pompey was considered the greatest military commander of his time and commanded armies in the Third Servile War
Third Servile War
(73–71 BC) in Italy and the Third Mithridatic War
Third Mithridatic War
(73–63 BC) against the Kingdom of Pontus in West Asia. This gave him great prestige and popularity. Crassus
Crassus
was a property speculator, the largest landlord, and the richest man in Rome
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Palatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (/ˈpælətaɪn/; Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Italian: Palatino [palaˈtiːno]) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome
Rome
and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres[1] above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus
on the other
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Roman Kingdom
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome
Rome
and its territories. Little is certain about the history of the kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it that were written during the Republic and Empire are largely based on legends
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Umbilicus Urbis
The Umbilicus Urbis Romae (Classical Latin: [ʊmbɪˈliːkʊs ˈʊrbɪs ˈroːmaj])—"Navel of the City of Rome"—was the symbolic centre of the city from which, and to which, all distances in Ancient Rome were measured. It was situated in the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
where its remnants can still be seen. These remains are located beside the Arch of Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
and the Vulcanal, behind the Rostra. Originally covered in marble, the Umbilicus is now a forlorn-looking brick core some 2 metres high and 4.45 metres in diameter. History[edit] Roman legend related that Romulus, when he founded the city, had a circular pit dug in the Forum
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Roman Senate
The Roman Senate
Senate
(Latin: Senatus Romanus; Italian: Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome
Rome
in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king
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Republican Government
Representative democracy
Representative democracy
(also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.[2] Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, Ireland is a unitary parliamentary republic, and the United States is a federal republic.[3] It is an element of both the parliamentary and the presidential systems of government and is typically used in a lower chamber such as the House of Commons
House of Commons
(United Kingdom), Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(India) or Dáil Éireann (Republic of Ireland), and may be curtailed by constitutional constraints such as an upper chamber. It has been described by some political theorists including Robert A
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