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Filter Feeder
FILTER FEEDERS are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals that use this method of feeding are clams , krill , sponges , baleen whales , and many fish (including some sharks ). Some birds, such as flamingos and certain species of duck , are also filter feeders. Filter feeders can play an important role in clarifying water, and are therefore considered ecosystem engineers . CONTENTS * 1 Fish
Fish
* 2 Crustaceans * 3 Baleen
Baleen
whales * 4 Bivalves * 5 Sponges * 6 Cnidarians * 7 Flamingos * 8 Pterosaurs * 9 Marine reptiles * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links FISH See also: Forage fish Most forage fish are filter feeders
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Striped Bass
The STRIPED BASS ( Morone
Morone
saxatilis), also called ATLANTIC STRIPED BASS, STRIPER, LINESIDER, ROCK, or ROCKFISH, is an anadromous Perciforme fish of the family Moronidae found primarily along the Atlantic
Atlantic
coast of North America. It has also been widely introduced into inland recreational fisheries across the United States. Striped bass found in the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
are a separate strain referred to as Gulf Coast striped bass. The striped bass is the state fish of Maryland
Maryland
, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, and South Carolina
South Carolina
, and the state saltwater (marine) fish of New York , New Jersey
New Jersey
, Virginia
Virginia
, and New Hampshire
New Hampshire

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Thoracopod
The ARTHROPOD LEG is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods , usually used for walking . Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments (called PODOMERES) are of Latin
Latin
origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa (meaning hip , plural coxae), trochanter (compare trochanter ), femur (plural femora), tibia (plural tibiae), tarsus (plural tarsi), ischium (plural ischia), metatarsus , carpus , dactylus (meaning finger ), patella (plural patellae). Homologies of leg segments between groups are difficult to prove and are the source of much argument. Some authors posit up to eleven segments per leg for the most recent common ancestor of extant arthropods but modern arthropods have eight or fewer. It has been argued that the ancestral leg need not have been so complex, and that other events, such as successive loss of function of a Hox-gene , could result in parallel gains of leg segments
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Porcelain Crab
See text PORCELAIN CRABS are decapod crustaceans in the widespread family PORCELLANIDAE, which superficially resemble true crabs . They have flattened bodies as an adaptation for living in rock crevices. They are delicate, readily losing limbs when attacked, and use their large claws for maintaining territories. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Evolution * 3 Biogeography and ecology * 4 Diversity * 5 References DESCRIPTIONPorcelain crabs are small, usually with body widths of less than 15 mm (0.59 in). They share the general body plan of a squat lobster , but their bodies are more compact and flattened, an adaptation for living and hiding under rocks. Porcelain crabs are quite fragile animals, and will often shed their limbs to escape predators, hence their name. The lost appendage can grow back over several moults . Porcelain crabs have large chelae (claws), which are used for territorial struggles, but not for catching food
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Cetacea
Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (see text for families) DIVERSITY Around 88 species CETACEA (/sᵻˈteɪʃə/ ) are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales , dolphins , and porpoises . Cetaceans are carnivorous and finned. Most species live in the sea, some in rivers. The name is derived from the Latin cetus "whale " and Greek ketos "huge fish". There are around 89 extant species, which are divided into two groups or parvorders , the Odontoceti or toothed whales, a group of more than 70 species that includes the dolphins and porpoises, and the Mysticeti or baleen whales, of which there are now 15 species. The extinct ancestors of modern whales are the Archaeoceti
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Flounder
FLOUNDERS are a group of flatfish species. They are demersal fish found at the bottom of oceans around the world; some species will also enter estuaries . CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Eye migration * 3 Habitat * 4 Threats * 5 References * 6 External links TAXONOMYThe name 'flounder' is used for several only distantly related species, though all are in the suborder Pleuronectidae (families Achiropsettidae , Bothidae , Pleuronectidae , Paralichthyidae , and Samaria )
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Cod
COD is the common name for the genus Gadus of demersal fishes , belonging to the family Gadidae . Cod
Cod
is also used as part of the common name for a number of other fish species, and some species suggested to belong to genus Gadus are not called cod (the Alaska pollock ). The two most common species of cod are the Atlantic cod
Atlantic cod
(Gadus morhua), which lives in the colder waters and deeper sea regions throughout the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
, and the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), found in both eastern and western regions of the northern Pacific . Gadus morhua was named by Linnaeus
Linnaeus
in 1758. (However, G
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Invertebrate
INVERTEBRATES are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord . This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata . Familiar examples of invertebrates include insects ; crabs, lobsters and their kin ; snails, clams, octopuses and their kin ; starfish, sea-urchins and their kin ; jellyfish , and worms . The majority of animal species are invertebrates; one estimate puts the figure at 97%. Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata. Some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more closely related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates. This makes the term "invertebrate" paraphyletic and hence almost meaningless for taxonomic purposes
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Phytoplankton
PHYTOPLANKTON /ˌfaɪtoʊˈplæŋktən/ are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems . The name comes from the Greek words φυτόν (phyton), meaning "plant ", and πλαγκτός (planktos), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter". Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the unaided eye . However, when present in high enough numbers, some varieties may be noticeable as colored patches on the water surface due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells and accessory pigments (such as phycobiliproteins or xanthophylls ) in some species
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Mysidacea
The MYSIDACEA is a group of shrimp -like crustaceans in the superorder Peracarida , comprising the two extant orders Mysida and Lophogastrida and the prehistoric Pygocephalomorpha . Current data indicate that despite their external similarities, the three orders are not closely related, and the taxon Mysidacea
Mysidacea
is not used in modern taxonomy. REFERENCES * ^ K. Meland ">(PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution . 44 (3): 1083–1104. doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02.009 . PMID 17398121 . * ^ R. Brusca & G. Brusca (2003). Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. * ^ Gary Anderson (January 20, 2010). " Peracarida Taxa and Literature (Cumacea, Lophogastrida, Mysida, Stygiomysida and Tanaidacea)". * ^ J. Mees (2010). "Mysidacea". World Register of Marine Species . Retrieved November 13, 2010. * ^ Joel W. Martin ">(PDF )
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Baleen
BALEEN is a filter-feeder system inside the mouths of baleen whales . The baleen system works by a whale opening its mouth underwater and taking in water. The whale then pushes the water out, and animals such as krill are filtered by the baleen and remain as food source for the whale. Baleen
Baleen
is similar to bristles and consists of keratin , the same substance found in human fingernails and hair. Baleen
Baleen
is a skin derivative. Some whales, such as the bowhead whale , have longer baleen than others. Other whales, such as the gray whale , only use one side of their baleen. These baleen bristles are arranged in plates across the upper jaw of the whale. Baleen
Baleen
is often called WHALEBONE, but that name also can refer to the normal bones of whales, which have often been used as a material, especially as a cheaper substitute for ivory in carving
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Toothed Whales
The TOOTHED WHALES (systematic name ODONTOCETI) are a parvorder of cetaceans that includes all the dolphins and porpoises , as well as the whales that have teeth , such as the beaked whales and sperm whales . Seventy-three species of toothed whales (also called ODONTOCETES) are described. They are one of two living groups of cetaceans, the other being the baleen whales (Mysticeti), which have baleen instead of teeth. The two groups are thought to have diverged around 34 million years ago (mya). Toothed whales range in size from the 4.5 ft (1.4 m) and 120 lb (54 kg) vaquita to the 20 m (66 ft) and 55 t (61-short-ton) sperm whale. Several species of odontocetes exhibit sexual dimorphism , in that the females are larger than males. They have streamlined bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers. Some can travel at up to 20 knots. Odontocetes have conical teeth designed for catching fish or squid
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Bivalve Shell
A BIVALVE SHELL is part of the body, the exoskeleton or shell, of a bivalve mollusk . In life, the shell of this class of mollusks is composed of two hinged parts or valves . Bivalves are very common in essentially all aquatic locales, including saltwater, brackish water, and freshwater. The shells of bivalves commonly wash up on beaches (often as separate valves) and along the edges of lakes, rivers, and streams. Bivalves by definition possess two shells or valves, a "right valve" and a "left valve", that are joined by a ligament . The two valves usually articulate with one another using structures known as "teeth" which are situated along the hinge line . In many (but by no means all) bivalve shells, the two valves are symmetrical along the hinge line— when truly symmetrical, such an animal is said to be equivalved; if the valves vary from each other in size or shape, inequivalved
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Symmetry
SYMMETRY (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more precise definition, that an object is invariant to any of various transformations; including reflection , rotation or scaling . Although these two meanings of "symmetry" can sometimes be told apart, they are related, so they are here discussed together. Mathematical symmetry may be observed with respect to the passage of time ; as a spatial relationship ; through geometric transformations ; through other kinds of functional transformations; and as an aspect of abstract objects , theoretic models , language , music and even knowledge itself
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Amphipoda
Traditional division * Gammaridea * Caprellidea * Hyperiidea * Ingolfiellidea Revised division (2013) * Gammaridea * Senticaudata * Hyperiidea * Ingolfiellidea AMPHIPODA is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies. Amphipods range in size from 1 to 340 millimetres (0.039 to 13 in) and are mostly detritivores or scavengers . There are more than 9,900 amphipod species so far described. They are mostly marine animals, but are found in almost all aquatic environments. Some 1,900 species live in fresh water, and the order also includes terrestrial animals and sandhoppers such as Talitrus saltator
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