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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Physical Geography
Physical geography
Physical geography
(also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.[1][2][3] Physical geography is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.Contents1 Sub-branches 2 Journals and literature 3 Historical evolution of the discipline 4 Notable physical geographers 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksSub-branches[edit]A natural arch.Physical Geography
Geography
can be divided into several sub-fields, as follows: Geomorphology
Geomorphology
is the field concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
shaded blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North
North
PoleThe Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the Equator
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Drainage Divide
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline,[1] watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins. On rugged land, the divide lies along topographical ridges, and may be in the form of a single range of hills or mountains, known as a dividing range
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Eastern Hemisphere
The Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
is a geographical term for the half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London) and west of the antimeridian. It is also used to refer to Afro-Eurasia ( Africa
Africa
and Eurasia) and Australia, in contrast with the Western Hemisphere, which includes mainly North and South America. This hemisphere may also be called the "Oriental Hemisphere". In addition, it may be used in a cultural or geopolitical sense as a synonym for the "Old World".Contents1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 References 4 External linksGeography[edit] The line demarcating the Eastern and Western Hemispheres is an arbitrary convention, unlike the Equator
Equator
(an imaginary line encircling Earth, equidistant from its poles), which divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Turkish Straits
The Turkish Straits
Turkish Straits
(Turkish: Türk Boğazları) are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey
Turkey
that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea. They consist of the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosphorus, all part of the sovereign sea territory of Turkey
Turkey
and subject to the regime of internal waters. Located in the western part of the landmass of Eurasia, the Turkish Straits are conventionally considered the boundary between the continents of Europe
Europe
and Asia, as well as the dividing line between European Turkey
Turkey
and Asian Turkey
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Demonym
A demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.[1] It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously gentilic was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary.[2][3][4] Examples of demonyms include Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast and Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Renaissance Science
During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, anatomy and engineering. The rediscovery of ancient scientific texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
in 1453, and the invention of printing which would democratize learning and allow a faster propagation of new ideas. But, at least in its initial period, some see the Renaissance
Renaissance
as one of scientific backwardness. Historians like George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike
Lynn Thorndike
have criticized how the Renaissance
Renaissance
affected science, arguing that progress was slowed for some amount of time. Humanists favored human-centered subjects like politics and history over study of natural philosophy or applied mathematics
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Caucasus Mountains
The Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains[a] are a mountain system in West Asia
West Asia
between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region. The Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains include the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
in the north and Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus
in the south
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Renaissance Humanism
Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe
Western Europe
in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The term Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism is contemporary to that period — Renaissance
Renaissance
(rinascimento, "rebirth") and "humanist" (whence modern humanism; also Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism to distinguish it from later developments grouped as humanism).[1] Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism.[2] Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions
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Ural River
The Ural (Russian: Урал, pronounced [ʊˈraɫ]) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Bashkir: Яйыҡ, Yayıq, pronounced [jɑˈjɯq]; Kazakh: Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق, pronounced [ʒɑjə́q]), known as Yaik
Yaik
(Russian: Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in Eurasia. It originates in the southern Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
and discharges into the Caspian Sea
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Renaissance Art
Renaissance
Renaissance
art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of the period of European history, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music, and science. Renaissance
Renaissance
art, perceived as the noblest of ancient traditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by absorbing recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance
Renaissance
art, with Renaissance Humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities
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List Of Continents By GDP (nominal)
This article includes a list of continents of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the market value of all final goods and services from a continent in a given year. The GDP dollar estimates presented here are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The figures presented here do not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. Such fluctuations may change a continents ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference to the standard of living of its population. Therefore, these figures should be used with caution. Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries
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Black Sea
The Black Sea
Black Sea
is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.[1] It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni
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Western Roman Empire
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire
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