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Equal Loudness Contours
An equal-loudness contour is a measure of sound pressure (dB SPL), over the frequency spectrum, for which a listener perceives a constant loudness when presented with pure steady tones. The unit of measurement for loudness levels is the phon, and is arrived at by reference to equal-loudness contours. By definition, two sine waves of differing frequencies are said to have equal-loudness level measured in phons if they are perceived as equally loud by the average young person without significant hearing impairment. Equal-loudness contours are often referred to as "Fletcher-Munson" curves, after the earliest researchers, but those studies have been superseded and incorporated into newer standards
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Fletcher–Munson Curves
The Fletcher–Munson curves
Fletcher–Munson curves
are one of many sets of equal-loudness contours for the human ear, determined experimentally by Harvey Fletcher and Wilden A. Munson, and reported in a 1933 paper entitled "Loudness, its definition, measurement and calculation" in the Journal of the Acoustic Society of America.[1]Contents1 Background 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksBackground[edit] The first research on the topic of how the ear hears different frequencies at different levels was conducted by Fletcher and Munson in 1933
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Japanese Industrial Standards
Japanese Industrial Standards
Japanese Industrial Standards
(JIS) (日本工業規格, Nihon Kōgyō Kikaku) specifies the standards used for industrial activities in Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) and published through the Japanese Standards Association (JSA). Japanese Industrial Standards Committee is composed of many nationwide committees and plays vital role in standardizing activities in Japan.Contents1 History 2 Standards classification and numbering 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] In the Meiji period, private enterprises were responsible for making standards although the Japanese government did have standards and specification documents for procurement purposes for certain articles, such as munitions. These were summarized to form an official standard (old Japanese Engineering Standard (JES)) in 1921
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DIN
Deutsches Institut für Normung
Deutsches Institut für Normung
e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body. DIN is a German Registered Association (e.V.) headquartered in Berlin. There are currently around thirty thousand DIN Standards, covering nearly every field of technology.Contents1 History 2 DIN standard designation 3 Examples of DIN standards 4 See also 5 External linksHistory[edit] Founded in 1917 as the Normenausschuß der deutschen Industrie (NADI, "Standardisation Committee of German Industry"), the NADI was renamed Deutscher Normenausschuß (DNA, "German Standardisation Committee") in 1926 to reflect that the organization now dealt with standardization issues in many fields; viz., not just for industrial products
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Audio Quality Measurement
Audio system measurements are made for several purposes. Designers take measurements so that they can specify the performance of a piece of equipment. Maintenance engineers make them to ensure equipment is still working to specification, or to ensure that the cumulative defects of an audio path are within limits considered acceptable. Some aspects of measurement and specification relate only to intended usage
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Compact Cassette
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback. It was released by Philips
Philips
in 1963, having been developed in Hasselt, Belgium.[2] Compact cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a prerecorded cassette, or as a fully recordable "blank" cassette. Both forms are reversible by the user.[3] The compact cassette technology was originally designed for dictation machines, but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette
Compact Cassette
to supplant the Stereo 8-track cartridge
8-track cartridge
and reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications.[4] Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers
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Dolby
Dolby Laboratories, Inc. (often shortened to Dolby Labs) is an American company specializing in audio noise reduction and audio encoding/compression. Dolby licenses its technologies to consumer electronics manufacturers.Contents1 History 2 Technologies2.1 Analog audio noise reduction 2.2 Audio encoding/compression 2.3 Audio processing 2.4 Video processing 2.5 Digital cinema 2.6 Live sound3 Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround
systems at a glance 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Dolby Labs was founded by American Ray Dolby
Ray Dolby
(1933–2013) in London, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1965. In that same year he officially invented the Dolby Sound System, a form of audio signal processing. His first U.S. patent was not filed until 1969, four years later
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BBC Research
BBC
BBC
Research & Development is the national technical research department of the BBC.Contents1 Function 2 Structure 3 History3.1 Innovations 3.2 Closure of Kingswood Warren and move to London and Salford4 Future projects 5 See also 6 References 7 External links7.1 Video clipsFunction[edit] It has responsibility for researching and developing advanced and emerging media technologies for the benefit of the corporation, and wider UK and European media industries, and is also the technical design authority for a number of major technical infrastructure transformation projects for the UK broadcasting industry. Structure[edit]
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Pink Noise
Pink noise
Pink noise
or ​1⁄f noise is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density (energy or power per frequency interval) is inversely proportional to the frequency of the signal. In pink noise, each octave (halving/doubling in frequency) carries an equal amount of noise energy. The name arises from the pink appearance of visible light with this power spectrum.[1] This is in contrast with white noise which has equal intensity per frequency interval. Within the scientific literature the term pink noise is sometimes used a little more loosely to refer to any noise with a power spectral density of the form S ( f ) ∝ 1 f α , displaystyle S(f)propto frac 1 f^ alpha , where f is frequency, and 0 < α < 2, with exponent α usually close to 1
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ITU-R 468 Noise Weighting
ITU-R 468 (originally defined in CCIR recommendation 468-4; sometimes referred to as CCIR-1k) is a standard relating to noise measurement, widely used when measuring noise in audio systems. The standard,[1] now referred to as ITU-R BS.468-4, defines a weighting filter curve, together with a quasi-peak rectifier having special characteristics as defined by specified tone-burst tests
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Comité Consultatif International Pour La Radio
The ITU
ITU
Radiocommunication
Radiocommunication
Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU) and is responsible for radio communication. Its role is to manage the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources and to develop standards for radiocommunication systems with the objective of ensuring the effective use of the spectrum.[1] ITU
ITU
is required, according to its Constitution, to allocate spectrum and register frequency allocation, orbital positions and other parameters of satellites, “in order to avoid harmful interference between radio stations of different countries”
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International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission[3] (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization[4][5] that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation, transmission and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, semiconductors, fibre optics, batteries, solar energy, nanotechnology and marine energy as well as many others
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British Standards Institution
BSI Group, also known as the British Standards
British Standards
Institution (or BSI), is the national standards body of the United Kingdom
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International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.[1] The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards
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Noise Measurement
Noise
Noise
is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing. From a physics standpoint, noise is indistinguishable from sound, as both are vibrations through a medium, such as air or water. The difference arises when the brain receives and perceives a sound.[1][2] In experimental sciences, noise can refer to any random fluctuations of data that hinders perception of an expected signal.[3][4] Acoustic noise is any sound in the acoustic domain, either deliberate (e.g., music or speech) or unintended. In contrast, noise in electronics may not be audible to the human ear and may require instruments for detection.[5] In audio engineering, noise can refer to the unwanted residual electronic noise signal that gives rise to acoustic noise heard as a hiss
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Quasi-peak Detector
A quasi-peak detector is a type of electronic detector or rectifier. Quasi-peak detectors for specific purposes have usually been standardized with mathematically precisely defined dynamic characteristics of attack time, integration time, and decay time or fall-back time. Quasi-peak detectors play an important role in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing of electronic equipment, where allowed levels of electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio frequency interference (RFI), are given with reference to measurement by a specified quasi-peak detector
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