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Emergency Medicine
EMERGENCY MEDICINE, formerly known in some countries as ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE, is the medical specialty involving care for undifferentiated and unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention. In their role as first-line providers, emergency physicians are responsible for initiating investigations and interventions to diagnose and/or treat patients in the acute phase (including initial resuscitation and stabilization), coordinating care with physicians from other specialities, and making decisions regarding a patient's need for hospital admission, observation, or discharge. Emergency physicians generally practice in hospital emergency departments , pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services , and intensive care units , but may also work in primary care settings such as urgent care clinics. Different models for emergency medicine exist internationally
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Primary Care
PRIMARY CARE is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider . Typically this provider acts as the first contact and principal point of continuing care for patients within a healthcare system , and coordinates other specialist care that the patient may need. Patients commonly receive primary care from professionals such as a primary care physician (general practitioner or family physician ), a nurse practitioner (adult-gerontology nurse practitioner , family nurse practitioner , or pediatric nurse practitioner ), or a physician assistant . In some localities such a professional may be a registered nurse , a pharmacist , a clinical officer (as in parts of Africa), or a Ayurvedic or other traditional medicine professional (as in parts of Asia). Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients may then be referred for secondary or tertiary care
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Acute (medicine)
In medicine , describing a disease as ACUTE denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset. The quantitation of how much time constitutes "short" and "recent" varies by disease and by context, but the core denotation of "acute" is always qualitatively in contrast with "chronic ", which denotes long-lasting disease (for example, in acute leukemia and chronic leukemia ). In addition, "acute" also often connotes two other meanings: sudden onset and severity, such as in acute myocardial infarction (EMI), where suddenness and severity are both established aspects of the meaning. It thus often connotes that the condition is fulminant (as in the EMI example), but not always (as in acute rhinitis , which is usually synonymous with the common cold ). The one thing that acute MI and acute rhinitis have in common is that they are not chronic
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Intensive Care Unit
An INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (ICU), also known as an INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT or INTENSIVE TREATMENT UNIT (ITU) or CRITICAL CARE UNIT (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine . Intensive care units cater to patients with severe and life-threatening illnesses and injuries, which require constant, close monitoring and support from specialist equipment and medications in order to ensure normal bodily functions . They are staffed by highly trained doctors and nurses who specialise in caring for critically ill patients. ICUs are also distinguished from normal hospital wards by a higher staff-to-patient ratio and access to advanced medical resources and equipment that is not routinely available elsewhere. Common conditions that are treated within ICUs include acute (or adult) respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ), trauma , multiple organ failure and sepsis
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Ultrasounds
ULTRASOUND is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing . Ultrasound is no different from 'normal' (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz. Ultrasound is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. Ultrasound imaging or sonography is often used in medicine . In the nondestructive testing of products and structures, ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws. Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning, mixing, and to accelerate chemical processes. Animals such as bats and porpoises use ultrasound for locating prey and obstacles. Scientist are also studying ultrasound using graphene diaphragms as a method of communication
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Illness
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function. The study of disease is called pathology , which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system , such as an immunodeficiency , or by a hypersensitivity , including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by Plasmodium ssp.), the term disease is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged
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Anglo-American
(215.6 million (196.8 million Non-Hispanic whites and 17.8 million English Canadians ) ) REGIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT POPULATIONS Throughout the United States and Canada LANGUAGES English (American , Canadian )ANGLO-AMERICANS or ANGLOS are people who are inhabitants of Anglo-America and are referred to as English Americans and/or an English Canadians . It typically refers to an English -speaking American in distinction to Spanish speakers in the Southwestern states and in Mexico ; German speakers (Amish ) in North Dakota , Ohio , and Pennsylvania ; French speakers in Canada , New England and Louisiana ; and traditionally Russian and Yiddish -speaking American Jews in New York . This usage originated in the discussion of the history of English-speaking people of the United States and the Spanish-speaking people residing in the western United States during the Mexican–American War
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Franco-German
The RELATIONS BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY, since 1871, according to Ulrich Krotz, has three grand periods: \'hereditary enmity\' (down to 1945) , 'reconciliation' (1945–63) and since 1963 the 'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship (French : Amitié franco-allemande; German : Deutsch-Französische Freundschaft). In the context of the European Union
European Union
, the cooperation between the two countries is immense and intimate. Even though France
France
has at times been eurosceptical in outlook, especially under President Charles de Gaulle , Franco-German agreements and cooperations have always been key to furthering the ideals of European integration
European integration
. In recent times, France
France
and Germany
Germany
are among the most enthusiastic proponents of the further integration of the EU
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Strokes
STROKE is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death . There are two main types of stroke: ischemic , due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic , due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking , feeling like the world is spinning , or loss of vision to one side . Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache . The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control . The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure
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Life Support
LIFE SUPPORT refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs. Healthcare providers and emergency medical technicians are generally certified to perform basic and advanced life support procedures; however, basic life support is sometimes provided at the scene of an emergency by family members or bystanders before emergency services arrive. In the case of cardiac injuries, cardiopulmonary resuscitation is initiated by bystanders or family members 25% of the time. Basic life support techniques, such as performing CPR on a victim of cardiac arrest , can double or even triple that patient's chance of survival
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Otolaryngology
OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY /oʊtoʊˌraɪnoʊˌlærənˈɡɒlədʒi/ (also called OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons
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Anesthesiologist
An ANESTHESIOLOGIST ( American English
American English
) or ANAESTHETIST (British English ) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine . Terminology varies between countries. In the United States
United States
, the term anesthesiologist refers to a physician who has completed medical school training and an accredited anesthesiology residency program. In contrast, in the UK and Europe generally, and in most of the former commonwealth countries, the word anaesthetist is used to refer only to the doctors, while their assistants may be termed anaesthetic nurses , anaesthetic technicians, operating department practitioners or physician associates , depending on local practice. Anesthesiologists provide medical care to patients in many different ways
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CT Scan
A CT SCAN makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic ) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. Other terms include computed axial tomography (CAT scan) and computer aided tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to further generate a three-dimensional volume of the inside of the object from a large series of two-dimensional radiographic images taken around a single axis of rotation . Medical imaging
Medical imaging
is the most common application of X-ray
X-ray
CT. Its cross-sectional images are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines
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Hospital
A HOSPITAL is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a heart attack . A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialised hospitals include trauma centres , rehabilitation hospitals , children\'s hospitals , seniors' (geriatric ) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment (see psychiatric hospital ) and certain disease categories. Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses
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Projection Radiography
PROJECTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY is a form of medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation. Radiographic exams are typically performed by radiographers , who are trained, licensed medical professionals. However, radiographers generally perform other types of medical imaging as well, such as computed tomography , which also uses X-rays but generates axial sections of the body instead of projections
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Poisoning
POISONING is a condition or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed (POISONED) by a toxic substance or venom of an animal . Acute poisoning is exposure to a poison on one occasion or during a short period of time. Symptoms develop in close relation to the degree of exposure . Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning (that is, in the blood throughout the body). In contrast, substances that destroy tissue but do not absorb, such as lye , are classified as corrosives rather than poisons. Furthermore, many common household medications are not labeled with skull and crossbones , although they can cause severe illness or even death. In the medical sense, toxicity and poisoning can be caused by less dangerous substances than those legally classified as a poison. Toxicology
Toxicology
is the study and practice of the symptoms, mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of poisoning
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