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Ecbatana
ECBATANA (/ɛkˈbætənə/ ; Old Persian : 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", Aramaic : אַחְמְתָא‎‎, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus
Herodotus
, elsewhere Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian
Akkadian
: 𒆳𒀀𒃵𒋫𒉡 kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle
Nabonidus Chronicle
) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran
Iran
. It is believed that Ecbatana
Ecbatana
is in Tell Hagmatana (Tappe-ye Hagmatāna), near Hamedan
Hamedan
. but the history of the city is controversial. Excavations at Kaboutar Ahang have revealed stone age tools and pottery from 1400 to 1200 BC
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Drachm
The DRAM (alternative British spelling DRACHM; apothecary symbol ʒ or ℨ; abbreviated DR) :C-6–C-7 is a unit of mass in the avoirdupois system, and both a unit of mass and a unit of volume in the apothecaries\' system . It was originally both a coin and a weight in ancient Greece . The unit of volume is more correctly called a FLUID DRAM, FLUID DRACHM, FLUIDRAM or FLUIDRACHM (abbreviated FL DR, ƒ 3, or Fʒ). :C-17 CONTENTS * 1 Ancient unit of mass * 2 British unit of mass * 3 Modern unit of mass * 4 Unit of volume * 5 In popular culture * 6 References * 7 External links ANCIENT UNIT OF MASS Silver Drachm from Dyrrhachium, Illyria dated circa 229 BC. Obverse: ΞΕΝΩΝ, cow standing right, looking back at calf which it suckles, eagle standing right above; Reverse: DUR PURBA, square containing double stellate pattern, club to left
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Persian Kings
The following is a LIST OF MONARCHS OF PERSIA, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979
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Public Domain
The legal term PUBLIC DOMAIN refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or by their copyright term expiring. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms , NIH 's ImageJ , and the CIA
CIA
's World Factbook
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA ELEVENTH EDITION (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain , but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tens of thousands of its articles were copied directly into , where they still can be found
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Ganzak
GANZAK (Persian : گنزک Ganzak, Greek : Gazaca, Latin : Gaza, Ganzaga, Arabic : Janza, Jaznaq), is an ancient town founded in north-western Iran
Iran
. The city stood somewhere south of Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
and Atropates "presumably" chose the city as his capital. The exact location, according to Minorsky , Schippmann, and Boyce , is identified as being near Leylan , Malekan County in the Miandoab plain. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 References * 4 Sources ETYMOLOGYThe word means “treasury” and is of Median origin, and was adopted into Persian by the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
. The name is related to the Persian word for treasury i.e. گنج Ganj. HISTORY Ganzak
Ganzak
was built by the Achaemenids, and was the seat of the satrap of Media
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Bronze
BRONZE is an alloy consisting primarily of copper , commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium , manganese , nickel or zinc ) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic , phosphorus or silicon . These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility , or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. In the ancient Near East this began with the rise of Sumer
Sumer
in the 4th millennium BC, with India and China starting to use bronze around the same time; everywhere it gradually spread across regions
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Hebrew Bible
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e Page from an 11th-century Aramaic Targum
Targum
manuscript of the Hebrew Bible. HEBREW BIBLE or HEBREW SCRIPTURES ( Latin
Latin
: Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew : תנ"ך‎‎; Latin
Latin
: Thanach), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of several canonical editions of the Christian
Christian
Old Testament
Old Testament
. They are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew , with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others)
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Cuneiform (language)
CUNEIFORM SCRIPT (/kjuːˈniːᵻfɔːrm/ kew-NEE-i-form or /kjuːˈneɪᵻfɔːrm/ kew-NAY-i-form or /ˈkjuːnᵻfɔːrm/ KEW-ni-form ), one of the earliest systems of writing , was invented by the Sumerians. It is distinguished by its wedge -shaped marks on clay tablets , made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus . The name cuneiform itself simply means "wedge shaped". Emerging in Sumer in the late fourth millennium BC to convey the Sumerian language which was a language isolate (the Uruk IV period ), cuneiform writing began as a system of pictograms . In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller (Hittite cuneiform ). The system consists of a combination of logophonetic , consonantal alphabetic and syllabic signs
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Assyria
ASSYRIA was a major Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant
Levant
. It existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC in the form of the Assur city-state, until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC, spanning the Early to Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
through to the late Iron Age
Iron Age

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Sir Henry Rawlinson
Major-General SIR HENRY CRESWICKE RAWLINSON, 1ST BARONET, GCB , FRS (5 April 1810 – 5 March 1895) was a British East India Company
British East India Company
army officer, politician and Orientalist , sometimes described as the Father of Assyriology
Assyriology
. Rawlinson was one of the most important figures arguing that Britain must check Russian ambitions in South Asia. He was a strong advocate of the forward policy in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and counselled the retention of Kandahar
Kandahar
. He argued that Tsarist Russia would attack and absorb Khokand , Bokhara and Khiva (which they did – they are now parts of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
) and warned they would invade Persia (present-day Iran) and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as springboards to British India
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Book Of Ezra
The BOOK OF EZRA is a book of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
. Originally combined with the Book of Nehemiah
Book of Nehemiah
in a single book of Ezra–Nehemiah
Ezra–Nehemiah
, the two became separated in the early centuries of the Christian era. Its subject is the Return to Zion following the close of the Babylonian captivity , and it is divided into two parts, the first telling the story of the first return of exiles in the first year of Cyrus the Great (538 BC) and the completion and dedication of the new Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the sixth year of Darius I
Darius I
(515 BC), the second telling of the subsequent mission of Ezra to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and his struggle to purify the Jews from what the book calls the sin of marriage with non-Jews
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Indo-Iranian Languages
The INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES, or INDO-IRANIC LANGUAGES or ARYAN LANGUAGES, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family . It has more than 1 billion speakers, stretching from the Caucasus (Ossetian ) and the Balkans (Romani ) eastward to Xinjiang (Sarikoli ) and Assam (Assamese ), and south to Sri Lanka (Sinhalese ) and the Maldives (Maldivian ). The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian —also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo- Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan , Iranian , and Nuristani . Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic , is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch
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Akkadian
AKKADIAN (/əˈkeɪdiən/ akkadû, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 AK-KA-DU-U2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 URIKI ) is an extinct East Semitic language
Semitic language
that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(Akkad , Assyria
Assyria
, Isin
Isin
, Larsa and Babylonia
Babylonia
) from the 30th century BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Eastern Aramaic among Mesopotamians between the 8th century BC and its final extinction by the 1st to 3rd centuries AD
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