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Duke
A duke (male) (British English: /djuːk/[1] or American English: /duːk/[2]) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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Germanic Peoples
The Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.[1] They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[2] The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower, Upper, and Greater Germania
Germania
were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. The Roman use of the term "Germanic" was not necessarily based upon language, but referred to the tribal groups and alliances that lived in the regions of modern-day Luxembourg, Belgium, Northern France, Alsace, Poland, Austria, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany, and which were considered less civilized and more physically hardened than the Celtic Gauls
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British English
British English
British English
is the standard dialect of English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.[3] Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken,[4] so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
American English
American English
(AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US),[3] sometimes called United States
United States
English or U.S. English,[4][5] is the set of dialects of the English language
English language
native to the United States
United States
of America.[6] English is the most widely spoken language in the United States
United States
and is the common language used by the federal government, to the extent that all laws and compulsory education are practiced in English
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Ridder (title)
Ridder ([ˈrɪdər]; English: "Knight") is a noble title in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing below Baron, but above the untitled nobility (Jonkheer) in these countries. "Ridder" is a literal translation of Latin Eques and originally meant "horseman" or "rider". For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". In the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
no female equivalent exists. The collective term for its holders in a certain area as an executive and legislative assembly is named the Ridderschap (e.g
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Burgrave
Burgrave
Burgrave
(from German: Burggraf, Latin: burggravius, burcgravius, burgicomes) was since the medieval period a title for the ruler of a castle, especially a royal or episcopal castle, as well as a castle district (castellany) or fortified settlement or city.[1][2] The burgrave was a count in rank (German Graf, Latin Comes) equipped with judicial powers.[1][2] The title became hereditary in certain feudal families and was associated with a territory or domain called a Burgraviate (German Burggrafschaft, Latin Prefectura)
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Maid (title)
Maid is a title granted to the eldest daughter of a Laird. The title is not often used today but can still be used. The title is customary and not automatically given. The eldest daughter of a Laird
Laird
is entitled to place the title at the end of her name along with the Lairdship therefore becoming "Miss [Firstname] [Lastname], Maid of [Lairdship]." Only placing the word "Maid" at the end of the name is incorrect as the Lairdship must be included. As the title is customary and not automatic, it means that the eldest daughter can choose if they wish to take on this title, if they choose not to they are simply addressed as "Miss [Firstname] [Lastname] of [Lairdship]" If the eldest daughter is the heir apparent to a Lairdship, she has the choice to either take on the title "Younger" (see. Younger (title)) or to remain titled as "Maid of [x]"
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Younger (title)
Younger is a Scottish convention, style of address, or description traditionally used by the heir apparent to: 1. A current laird (owner of a substantial and landed estate in Scotland) 2. Someone whose name includes a territorial designation (i.e. a family who were previously lairds but who are no longer – this applies mainly to armigerous families who had a territorial designation which formed part of their name. Their arms being registered with the inclusion of the territorial designation, having become landless, still retain the full name – including the territorial designation – pertaining to the Grant of Arms) 3. A Scottish chieftainship (the head of a cadet branch of a clan which has a chief) 4. A clan chief. 5. A Scottish baron, only if also a laird (as above) and recognised by the Lord
Lord
Lyon as such.[1] The style of using the term "Younger" applies equally to a woman who is heir in her own right as to a man
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Gentleman
In modern parlance, a gentleman (from gentle + man, translating the Old French
Old French
gentilz hom[1]) is any man of good, courteous conduct. A gentleman may also simply be a polite term for any man, as in indications of gender-separated facilities, or as a sign of the speaker's own courtesy when addressing others. The modern female equivalent is lady. Originally, a gentleman was a man of the lowest rank of the English gentry, standing below an esquire and above a yeoman. By definition, this category included the younger sons of the younger sons of peers and the younger sons of baronets, knights, and esquires in perpetual succession, and thus the term captures the common denominator of gentility (and often armigerousness) shared by both constituents of the English aristocracy: the peerage and the gentry
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Junker
Junker
Junker
(German: Junker, Dutch: Jonkheer, English: Yunker, Scandinavian: Junker) is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young nobleman"[1] or otherwise "young lord" (derivation of jung and Herr)
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Jonkheer
Jonkheer
Jonkheer
(female equivalent: jonkvrouw; French: Écuyer) is a honorific in the Low Countries
Low Countries
denoting the lowest rank within the nobility. In the Netherlands, this in general concerns a prefix used by the untitled nobility. In Belgium, this is the lowest title within the nobility system, recognised by the Court of Cassation.[1][citation needed] It is the cognate and equivalent of the German noble honorific Junker, which was historically used throughout the German-speaking part of Europe, and to some extent also within Scandinavia.Contents1 Honorific
Honorific
of nobility 2 Title of nobility 3 Coronet 4 Nickname 5 See also 6 References Honorific
Honorific
of nobility[edit] Jonkheer
Jonkheer
or jonkvrouw is literally translated as "young lord" or "young lady"
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Edler
Edler
Edler
(German: [ˈeːdlɐ]) was until 1919 the lowest rank of nobility in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Germany, just beneath a Ritter
Ritter
(hereditary knight), but above untitled nobles, who used only the nobiliary particle von before their surname. It was mostly given to civil servants and military officers, as well as those upon whom the lower rank of an Order had been conferred. The noun Edler
Edler
comes from the adjective edel ("noble"), and translated literally means "noble [person]". In accordance with the rules of German grammar, the word can also appear as Edle, Edlem, or Edlen depending on case, gender, and number. Originally, from the Middle Ages, under the feudal system (in Europe and elsewhere), the nobility were generally those who held a fief, often in the form of heritable land worked by vassals
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Esquire
Esquire
Esquire
(British English: /ɪˈskwaɪə/;[1] American English: /ˈɛsˌkwaɪr/ or /ɪˈskwaɪr/;[2] abbreviated Esq.)[3] is usually a courtesy title. In the United Kingdom, Esquire
Esquire
historically was a title of respect accorded to men of higher social rank, particularly members of the landed gentry above the rank of gentleman and below the rank of knight. In 1826, William Blackstone
William Blackstone
reiterated that, "the title should be limited to those only who bear an office of trust under the Crown and who are styled esquires by the king in their commissions and appointments; and all, I conceive, who are once honoured by the king with the title of esquire have a right to that distinction for life."[4][5] By the early 20th century, it came to be used as a general courtesy title for any man in a formal setting, usually as a suffix to his name, as in "Todd Smith, Esq.", with no precise significance
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Ritter
Ritter
Ritter
(German for "knight") is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second-lowest rank within the nobility, standing above "Edler" and below "Freiherr" (Baron). For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". As with most titles and designations within the nobility in German-speaking areas, the rank was normally hereditary and generally was used with the nobiliary particle of von or zu before a family name. The wife of a Ritter
Ritter
was called a "Frau" (in this sense "Lady") and not Ritterin. In the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
the title of " Ritter
Ritter
von" was bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain "von" but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr"
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Castellan
A castellan was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle.[1] The word stems from the Latin Castellanus,[2] derived from castellum "castle". Sometimes also known as a constable, governor of the castle district or captain, the Constable of the Tower
Constable of the Tower
of London is, in fact, a form of castellan. A castellan was almost always male, but could occasionally be female, as when, in 1194, Beatrice inherited her father's castellany of Bourbourg
Bourbourg
upon the death of her brother, Roger.[3]Contents1 Initial power 2 Duties2.1 Castellans and Jews3 Regional differences3.1 France 3.2 Germany 3.3 Hungary 3.4 Jerusalem 3.5 Malta 3.6 Poland 3.7 Portugal4 Castellany 5 See also 6 ReferencesInitial power[edit] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many tribes migrated into western Europe, causing strife and war
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