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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Persistent Identifier
A persistent identifier (PI or PID) is a long-lasting reference to a document, file, web page, or other object. The term "persistent identifier" is usually used in the context of digital objects that are accessible over the Internet. Typically, such an identifier is not only persistent but actionable:[1] you can plug it into a web browser and be taken to the identified source. Of course, the issue of persistent identification predates the Internet. Over centuries, writers and scholars developed standards for citation of paper-based documents so that readers could reliably and efficiently find a source that a writer mentioned in a footnote or bibliography. After the Internet started to become an important source of information in the 1990s, the issue of citation standards became important in the online world as well. Studies have shown that within a few years of being cited, a significant percentage of web addresses go "dead,"[2][3] a process often called link rot
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OECD ILibrary
OECD
OECD
iLibrary is OECD’s Online Library for books, papers and statistics and the gateway to OECD’s analysis and data. It replaced Source OECD
OECD
in July 2010.[1] OECD
OECD
iLibrary contains content released by OECD
OECD
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development), International Energy Agency (IEA), Nuclear Energy Agency
Nuclear Energy Agency
(NEA), OECD
OECD
Development Centre, PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment), and International Transport Forum (ITF)
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Handle (computing)
In computer programming, a handle is an abstract reference to a resource. Handles are used when application software references blocks of memory or objects managed by another system, such as a database or an operating system. A resource handle can be an opaque identifier, in which case it is often an integer number (often an array index in an array or "table" that is used to manage that type of resource), or it can be a pointer that allows access to further information. Common resource handles are file descriptors, network sockets, database connections, process identifiers (PIDs), and job IDs. Process IDs and job IDs are explicitly visible integers, while file descriptors and sockets (which are often implemented as a form of file descriptor) are represented as integers, but are typically considered opaque
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Tsinghua University
Coordinates: 40°00′00″N 116°19′36″E / 40.00000°N 116.32667°E / 40.00000; 116.32667Tsinghua University清华大学Motto 自强不息、厚德载物[1]Motto in EnglishSelf-Discipline and Social Commitment[2]Type PublicEstablished 1911President Qiu Yong[3]Party Secretary Chen Xu[4]Academic staff3,133Administrative staff4,101Students 36,300[5]Undergraduates 15,570Postgraduates 19,311Location Beijing, ChinaCampus Urban, 395 hectares (980 acres)Flower[6] Redbud and LilacColors Purple and White          [7]Affiliations AEARU, APRU, C9, BRICS Universities LeagueWebsite www.tsinghua.edu.cnTsinghua UniversitySimplified Chinese 清华大学Traditional Chinese 清華大學TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin Qīnghuá Dàxu
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Publications Office (European Union)
The Publications Office of the European Union
European Union
(Publications Office) is an interinstitutional office that publishes and disseminates the publications of the institutions and other bodies of the European Union (see Decision 2009/496/EC, Euratom). The Publications Office publishes the Official Journal of the European Union in 23 languages (24 when Irish is required) and produces (or co-produces) general publications and informational material on EU initiatives and on the activities of the institutions and other bodies of the European Union. Moreover, the Publications Office provides a number of online services giving free
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Uniform Resource Identifier
In information technology, a Uniform Resource Identifier
Identifier
(URI) is a string of characters used to identify a resource. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web, using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI. The most common form of URI is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), frequently referred to informally as a web address
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Airiti
Airiti Incorporation (華藝數位) headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan, is the leading Chinese e-content provider of Chinese academic e-journals, Taiwanese academic e-journals, classical art images to more than 450[1] libraries in 2006 and has extended to more than 72,000 libraries in 112 countries and territories around the world.[1]Contents1 History 2 Products 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 External linksHistory[edit] Airiti Inc. established in 2000, started from Art Image Indexing Service on the Internet, and gradually developed into professional database of Art works and academic journals. The company has been providing a complete solution to the Chinese & Taiwanese academic communities by offering copyright consultation services, digital archive mechanisms, academic research analysis systems, and calibre academic publications
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Open Architecture
Open architecture is a type of computer architecture or software architecture that is designed to make adding, upgrading and swapping components easy.[1] For example, the IBM PC
IBM PC
and Apple IIe
Apple IIe
have an open architecture supporting plug-in cards, whereas the Apple IIc
Apple IIc
and Amiga 500 computers have a closed architecture. Open architecture systems may use a standardized system bus such as S-100, PCI or ISA or they may incorporate a proprietary bus standard such as that used on the Apple II, with up to a dozen slots that allow multiple hardware manufacturers to produce add-ons, and for the user to freely install them
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Web Browser
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web
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GS1
GS1
GS1
or Global Standards One is a not-for-profit organisation that develops and maintains global standards for business communication. The best known of these standards is the barcode, a symbol printed on products that can be scanned electronically. GS1
GS1
barcodes are scanned more than six billion times every day. GS1
GS1
has 112 local member organisations and 1.5 million user companies. GS1
GS1
standards are designed to improve the efficiency, safety and visibility of supply chains across physical and digital channels in 25 sectors
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Uniform Resource Locator
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address,[1] is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI),[2] although many people use the two terms interchangeably.[3][a] URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http), but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications. Most web browsers display the URL of a web page above the page in an address bar
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First Class (computing)
In database modeling, a first class item is one that has an identity independent of any other item. The identity allows the item to persist when its attributes change, and allows other items to claim relationships with the item. As a general rule, first class items represent things rather than relationships. For example, the database representations of a human and of a company are each first class items. However, the fact that the person is an employee of that company is not a first class item. Likewise, data about that relationship, e.g. information about the salary the company pays to its employee, is not a first class item. Typically, a relational database will include several tables, each of which contains rows representing first class items of a given type (e.g. a table of people, a table of companies)
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Uniform Resource Name
In computing, a Uniform Resource Name
Name
(URN) is a Uniform Resource Identifier
Identifier
(URI) that uses the urn schemeContents1 URIs, URNs, and URLs 2 Syntax 3 Namespaces3.1 Formal 3.2 Informal 3.3 Experimental4 Examples 5 See also 6 References6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources7 External linksURIs, URNs, and URLs[edit] URNs were originally conceived to be part of a three-part information architecture for the Internet, along with Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and Uniform Resource Characteristics (URCs), a metadata framework. As described in the 1994 RFC 1737,[1], and later in the 1997 RFC 2141 [2], URNs were distinguished from URLs, which identify resources by specifying their locations in the context of a particular access protocol, such as HTTP
HTTP
or FTP
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Case-insensitive
In computers, upper case and lower case text may be treated as distinct (case sensitivity) or equivalent (case insensitivity). For example, the following are sometimes case-sensitive, sometimes not:Usernames File
File
names Tags Commands Variable names Text string
Text string
searches within electronic text can usually be sensitive to case or not, as required Passwords are almost always case-sensitive. URLs are usuallySome programming languages are case-sensitive for their identifiers (C, C++, Java, C#, Verilog,[1] Ruby[2] and XML). Others are case-insensitive (i.e., not case-sensitive), such as Ada, most BASICs (an exception being BBC BASIC), Fortran, SQL[NB 1] and Pascal. There are also languages, such as Haskell, Prolog, and Go, in which the capitalization of an identifier encodes information about its semantics. A text search operation could be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, depending on the system, application, or context
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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