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Desmoulins (other)
LUCIE SIMPLICE CAMILLE BENOîT DESMOULINS (French: ; 2 March 1760 – 5 April 1794), a journalist and politician who played an important role in the French Revolution
French Revolution
. He was a childhood friend of Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
and a close friend and political ally of Georges Danton
Georges Danton
, who were influential figures in the French Revolution. Desmoulins was tried and executed alongside Danton when the Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
reacted against Dantonist opposition
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Joseph Boze
JOSEPH BOZE (7 February 1746 – 25 January 1826) was a French portrait and miniature painter born at Les Martigues ( Bouches-du-Rhône ). He painted the portraits of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette , and, being devoted to the court and the royal family, narrowly escaped the guillotine . He was thrown into prison, but the fall of Robespierre set him at liberty, and he came to England, where he remained until the restoration . He died in Paris in 1826. His own portrait is among his drawings in the Louvre
Louvre

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Divine Right Of Kings
The DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, DIVINE RIGHT, or GOD\'S MANDATE is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy . It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God
God
. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy , or any other estate of the realm . It implies that only God
God
can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God
God
and may constitute a sacrilegious act. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God
God
", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch
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French Nobility
The FRENCH NOBILITY (French : la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France
France
during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790. The nobility was revived in 1805 with limited rights as a titled elite class from the First Empire to the fall of the July Monarchy
July Monarchy
in 1848, when all privileges were abolished for good. Hereditary titles, without privileges, continued to be granted until the Second Empire fell in 1870. They survive among their descendants as a social convention and as part of the legal name of the corresponding individuals. In the political system of pre-Revolutionary France, the nobility made up the Second Estate of the Estates General (with the Catholic clergy comprising the First Estate and the bourgeoisie and peasants in the Third Estate ). Although membership in the noble class was mainly inherited, it was not a fully closed order
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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Storming Of The Bastille
The STORMING OF THE BASTILLE (French : Prise de la Bastille
Bastille
) occurred in Paris
Paris
, France
France
, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress , armory , and political prison in Paris
Paris
known as the Bastille
Bastille
represented royal authority in the center of Paris. The prison contained just seven inmates at the time of its storming but was a symbol of abuses by the monarchy; its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution
French Revolution
. In France, Le quatorze juillet (14 July) is a public holiday, usually called Bastille
Bastille
Day in English
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Les Invalides
LES INVALIDES (French pronunciation: ​ ), commonly known as HôTEL NATIONAL DES INVALIDES (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as HôTEL DES INVALIDES, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France , as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans , the building's original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l\'Armée , the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs , and the Musée d\'Histoire Contemporaine , as well as the Dôme des Invalides, a large church with the tombs of some of France's war heroes, most notably Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte
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Coffeehouse
A COFFEEHOUSE, COFFEE SHOP or CAFé (sometimes spelled CAFE) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee , related coffee beverages (e.g., café latte , cappuccino , espresso ), tea , and other hot beverages. Some coffeehouses also serve cold beverages such as iced coffee and iced tea . Many cafés also serve some type of food, such as light snacks, muffins or pastries . Coffeehouses range from owner-operated small businesses to large multinational corporations. In continental Europe, cafés often serve alcoholic beverages and light food, but elsewhere the term "café" may also refer to a tea room , "greasy spoon " (a small and inexpensive restaurant, colloquially called a "caff"), transport café , or other casual eating and drinking place. A coffeehouse may share some of the same characteristics of a bar or restaurant , but it is different from a cafeteria
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Palais Royal
The PALAIS-ROYAL (French pronunciation: ​ ), originally called the PALAIS-CARDINAL, is a palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris . The screened entrance court faces the Place du Palais-Royal, opposite the Louvre
Louvre
. The larger inner courtyard, the Cour d'Honneur, has since 1986 contained Daniel Buren 's site-specific art piece Les Deux Plateaux , known as Les Colonnes de Buren. In 1830 the Cour d'Honneur was enclosed to the north by what was probably the most famous of Paris's covered arcades, the Galerie d'Orléans. Demolished in the 1930s, its flanking rows of columns still stand between the Cour d'Honneur and the popular Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
Gardens
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St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The ST. BARTHOLOMEW\'S DAY MASSACRE (French : Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence , directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants ) during the French Wars of Religion . Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de\' Medici , the mother of King Charles IX , the massacre took place a few days after the wedding day (18 August) of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). Many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris to attend the wedding. The massacre began in the night of 23–24 August 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle ), two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny , the military and political leader of the Huguenots
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Louis XVIII Of France
LOUIS XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "THE DESIRED" (LE DéSIRé), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days
Hundred Days
. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire
First French Empire
, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I
Napoleon I
from Elba . Until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI
Louis XVI
. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention
National Convention
abolished the monarchy and deposed Louis XVI, who was later executed by guillotine
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Clergy
CLERGY are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions . The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the terms used for individual clergy are cleric, clergyman, clergywoman, clergyperson and churchman. In Christianity
Christianity
the specific names and roles of clergy vary by denomination and there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons , priests , bishops , preachers , pastors , ministers and the Pope
Pope
. In Islam
Islam
, a religious leader is often known formally or informally as an imam , mufti , mullah or ayatollah . In Jewish tradition, a religious leader is often a rabbi or hazzan (cantor)
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Epigraph (literature)
In literature , an EPIGRAPH is a phrase, quotation , or poem that is set at the beginning of a document or component. The epigraph may serve as a preface, as a summary, as a counter-example, or to link the work to a wider literary canon , either to invite comparison or to enlist a conventional context. CONTENTS* 1 Examples * 1.1 Fictional quotations * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links EXAMPLES * The long quotation from Dante 's Inferno that prefaces T. S. Eliot 's " The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock " is part of a speech by one of the damned in Dante's Hell. Linking it to the monologue which forms Eliot's poem adds a comment and a dimension to Prufrock's confession. The epigraph to Eliot's Gerontion is a quotation from Shakespeare 's Measure for Measure
Measure for Measure

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Paris Commune (French Revolution)
The PARIS COMMUNE during the French Revolution
French Revolution
was the government of Paris from 1792 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille , it consisted of 144 delegates elected by the 48 divisions of the city. The Paris Commune became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from the central French government. It took charge of routine civic functions but is best known for mobilizing extreme views and actions among the people and for its campaign to dechristianize the churches and the people. It lost much power in 1794 and was replaced in 1795. The first mayor was Jean Sylvain Bailly ; he was succeeded on November 1791 by Pétion de Villeneuve after Bailly's unpopular use of the National Guard to disperse a riotous assembly in the Champ de Mars (17 July 1791)
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Jacques Pierre Brissot
JACQUES PIERRE BRISSOT (15 January 1754 – 31 October 1793), who assumed the name of DE WARVILLE (An English version of Ouaraville, a village where his father owned property), was a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution
French Revolution
. Some sources give his name as JEAN PIERRE BRISSOT. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Foreign policy * 3 Arrest and execution * 4 Spying allegations * 5 Legacy * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYBrissot was born at Chartres
Chartres
, where his father was an innkeeper. He received an education and worked as a law clerk; first in Chartres then in Paris. He later moved to London
London
because he wanted to pursue a literary career. He published many literary articles throughout his time in London. While there, Brissot founded two periodicals that later did not do well and failed
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