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Deioces
DEIOCES or DIA—OKU was the founder and the first shah as well as priest of the Median government. His name has been mentioned in different forms in various sources; including Herodotus
Herodotus
, who has written his name as DēIOKēS. Deioces' name is derived from the Iranian word Dahyu-ka-, meaning "the lands" (above, on and beneath the earth). The exact date of the era of Deioces' rule is not clear and probably covered most of the first half of the seventh century BC. According to Herodotus, Deioces
Deioces
governed for 53 years. Based on Herodotus's writings, Deioces
Deioces
was the first Median king to have gained independence from the Assyrians . He contemplated the project and plan of forming a single Median government; and in an anarchistic era in the Medes, he tried to enforce justice in his own village and earn a credibility and fame as a neutral judge
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King
KING is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant in (while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king). * In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship . Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic rājan , Gothic reiks , and Old Irish rí , etc.) * In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate Latin rex or either Greek archon or basileus . * In classical European feudalism , the title of king as the ruler of a KINGDOM is understood as the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
). * In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional)
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Religion
RELIGION is any cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views , texts , sanctified places , ethics , or organizations , that relate humanity to the supernatural or transcendental . Religions relate humanity to what anthropologist Clifford Geertz has referred to as a cosmic "order of existence". However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine , sacred things , faith , a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals , sermons , commemoration or veneration (of deities ), sacrifices , festivals , feasts , trances , initiations , funerary services , matrimonial services , meditation , prayer , music , art , dance , public service , or other aspects of human culture
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as HELLAS, is a country in Southern Europe
Europe
, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
. Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula , it shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
ASSYRIAN NEO-ARAMAIC (Syriac : ܣܘܪܝܬ‎, sūrët), or just simply ASSYRIAN, is a modern Aramaic language
Aramaic language
within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic
Afro-Asiatic
language family. It is spoken by an estimated 200,000 people throughout a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia in northwestern Iran
Iran
, to the Nineveh plains , and the Irbil , Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and Duhok regions in northern Iraq
Iraq
, together with the Al Hasakah region of northeastern Syria
Syria
, and formerly parts of southeastern Turkey
Turkey

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Elamite Language
ELAMITE is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites
Elamites
. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran
Iran
from 2800 to 550 BC. The last written records in Elamite appear around the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. Elamite has no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate . The lack of established relatives is one reason for its interpretation being difficult. CONTENTS * 1 Writing system * 2 Linguistic typology * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 5 Morphology * 5.1 Nouns * 5.2 Verbs * 6 Syntax * 6.1 Language samples * 7 Relations to other language families * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links WRITING SYSTEM Elamite cuneiform , adapted from Akkadian cuneiform , was used from ca. 2500 to 331 BC
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Legislator
A LEGISLATOR (or LAWMAKER) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature . Legislators are usually politicians and are often elected by the people of the state. Legislatures may be supra-national (for example, the European Parliament
Parliament
), national (for example, the United States Congress ), regional (for example, the National Assembly for Wales
National Assembly for Wales
), or local (for example, local authorities ). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Terminology * 3 Substitute legislator * 4 References * 5 See also OVERVIEWThe political theory of the separation of powers requires legislators to be different individuals from the members of the executive and the judiciary . Certain political systems adhere to this principle, others do not
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Pishdadian Dynasty
PISHDADIAN (Persian : پیشدادیان‎‎) is the first dynasty of Iranian people
Iranian people
in the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
, Avesta
Avesta
and Iranian mythology . The Pishdadian Dynasty is said to have produced the first kings who ruled over the land of Persia. Some of the Pishdadian kings are thought to have ruled for thousands of years
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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar
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Iranian Studies
IRANIAN STUDIES (Persian : ايران‌شناسی‎‎ Īrānšenāsī), also referred to as IRANOLOGY and IRANISTICS, is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the history, literature, art and culture of Iranian peoples . It is a part of the wider field of Oriental studies
Oriental studies
. Iranian studies
Iranian studies
is broader than and distinct from Persian studies , which is the study of the modern Persian language
Persian language
(known as Farsi or Parsi to Iranians) and literature specifically
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Hushang
HUSHANG or HōSHANG (in Persian : هوشنگ‎‎), older Persian HōšANG, was the second Shāh to rule the world according to Ferdowsi 's Shāhnāmeh . Hushang
Hushang
is based upon the legendary figure HAOšYAŋHA in the ancient Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
scripture of the Avesta
Avesta
. Hushang
Hushang
is also called PISHDāD (پیشداد), older PēšDāD, corresponding to Avestan PARAδāTA. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Haošyaŋha in Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
literature * 3 Hushang
Hushang
in the Shāhnāma * 4 References * 5 External links ETYMOLOGYHaošyaŋha is the Avestan development of Proto-Iranian *Haušyahah, containing the prefix *Hau-, a derived form of *Hu-, "good, well", and an uncertain root šyah-, possibly to be interpreted as "selecting" or "deciding"
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Shahnameh
The SHAHNAMEH, also transliterated as SHAHNAMA (Persian : شاهنامه‎‎ pronounced , "The Book
Book
of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran
Greater Iran
. Consisting of some 50,000 "distichs" or couplets (2-line verses), the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is the world's longest epic poem written by a single poet. It tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical past of the Persian Empire from the creation of the world until the Islamic conquest of Persia
Persia
in the 7th century
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires
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Epigraphy
EPIGRAPHY is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing ; it is the science of identifying graphemes , clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigrapher or epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription
Behistun inscription
is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
engraved on native rock at a location in Iran
Iran
. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing, translating, and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances. It is the work of historians , however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document
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Orient
The ORIENT is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world
Eastern world
, in relation to Europe
Europe
. In English , it is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the continent of Asia , which was, depending on source, formally thought of as the Far East and the Near East
Near East
. The term ORIENTAL, as a descriptor of people or objects from the Orient, is considered outdated and sometimes culturally insensitive in some regions and dialects, but in others remains inoffensive and regularly used in modern parlance. An image of the "Eastern world " defined as Asia
Asia
, consisting of three overlapping cultural blocks: East
East
Asia
Asia
(green), South Asia
Asia
(orange), and Southeast Asia
Asia
(blue)
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Narrative
A NARRATIVE or STORY is a report of connected events, real or imaginary , presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images , or both. The word derives from the Latin verb narrare, "to tell", which is derived from the adjective gnarus, "knowing" or "skilled". Narrative can be organized in a number of thematic or formal categories: non-fiction (such as definitively including creative non-fiction , biography , journalism , transcript poetry , and historiography ); fictionalization of historical events (such as anecdote , myth , legend , and historical fiction ); and fiction proper (such as literature in prose and sometimes poetry , such as short stories , novels , and narrative poems and songs , and imaginary narratives as portrayed in other textual forms, games, or live or recorded performances)
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