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Degenerative Disease
DEGENERATIVE DISEASE is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs , which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits. Degenerative diseases are often contrasted with infectious diseases . EXAMPLES This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Prostatitis
PROSTATITIS (less commonly PROSTATOSIS) is inflammation of the prostate gland. Prostatitis
Prostatitis
is classified into acute, chronic, asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. In the United States
United States
, prostatitis is diagnosed in 8 percent of all urologist visits and 1 percent of all primary care physician visits. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links CLASSIFICATIONThe term prostatitis refers, in its strictest sense, to histological (microscopic) inflammation of the tissue of the prostate gland . Like all forms of inflammation, it can be associated with an appropriate response of the body to an infection, but it also occurs in the absence of infection. In 1999, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) devised a new classification system
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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
PROGRESSIVE SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY (PSP; or the STEELE–RICHARDSON–OLSZEWSKI SYNDROME, after the doctors who described it in 1963) is a degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain . Males and females are affected approximately equally and there is no racial, geographical or occupational predilection. Approximately 6 people per 100,000 population have PSP. It has been described as a tauopathy . CONTENTS * 1 Symptoms and signs * 2 Cause * 3 Pathophysiology * 4 Diagnosis * 4.1 Differential diagnosis * 5 Treatment * 5.1 Rehabilitation * 6 Prognosis * 7 Notable cases * 8 Support groups * 9 References * 10 External links SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS This patient presented with progressive dementia, ataxia and incontinence. A clinical diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus was entertained. Imaging did not support this, however, and on formal testing abnormal nystagmus and eye movements were detected
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Retinitis Pigmentosa
RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA (RP) is an inherited, degenerative eye disease that causes severe vision impairment due to the progressive degeneration of the rod photoreceptor cells in the retina . This form of retinal dystrophy manifests initial symptoms independent of age; thus, RP diagnosis occurs anywhere from early infancy to late adulthood. Patients in the early stages of RP first notice compromised peripheral and dim light vision due to the decline of the rod photoreceptors. The progressive rod degeneration is later followed by abnormalities in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the deterioration of cone photoreceptor cells. As peripheral vision becomes increasingly compromised, patients experience progressive "tunnel vision" and eventual blindness. Affected individuals may additionally experience defective light-dark adaptations, nyctalopia (night blindness), and the accumulation of bone spicules in the fundus
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Rheumatoid Arthritis
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints . It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints. Pain
Pain
and stiffness often worsen following rest. Most commonly, the wrist and hands are involved, with the same joints typically involved on both sides of the body. The disease may also affect other parts of the body. This may result in a low red blood cell count , inflammation around the lungs , and inflammation around the heart . Fever
Fever
and low energy may also be present. Often, symptoms come on gradually over weeks to months. While the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not clear, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The underlying mechanism involves the body's immune system attacking the joints. This results in inflammation and thickening of the joint capsule . It also affects the underlying bone and cartilage
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Tay–Sachs Disease
TAY–SACHS DISEASE is a genetic disorder that results in the destruction of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord . The most common type, known as infantile Tay–Sachs disease, becomes apparent around three to six months of age with the baby losing the ability to turn over, sit, or crawl. This is then followed by seizures , hearing loss , and inability to move . Death usually occurs in early childhood. Less commonly the disease may occur in later childhood or adulthood. These forms are generally milder in nature. Tay–Sachs disease is caused by a genetic mutation in the HEXA genes on chromosome 15 . It is inherited from a person\'s parents in an autosomal recessive manner. The mutation results in problems with an enzyme called beta-hexosamidase A which results in the buildup of the molecule GM2 ganglioside within cells, leading to toxicity. Diagnosis is by measuring the blood hexosaminidase A level or genetic testing . It is a type of sphingolipidoses
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Parkinson's Disease
PARKINSON\'S DISEASE (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system . The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking , rigidity , slowness of movement , and difficulty with walking . Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur. Dementia
Dementia
becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression and anxiety are also common occurring in more than a third of people with PD. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep , and emotional problems. The main motor symptoms are collectively called "parkinsonism ", or a "parkinsonian syndrome". The cause of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease
is generally unknown , but believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors. Those with a family member affected are more likely to get the disease themselves
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Osteoporosis
OSTEOPOROSIS is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone . It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly . Bones that commonly break include the vertebrae in the spine , the bones of the forearm , and the hip . Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may occur following a broken bone. Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
may be due to lower than normal bone mass and greater than normal bone loss. Bone loss increases after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen . Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
may also occur due to a number of diseases or treatments including alcoholism , anorexia , hyperthyroidism , kidney disease , and surgical removal of the ovaries
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Multiple System Atrophy
MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY (MSA), also known as SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors , slow movement , muscle rigidity, and postural instability balance difficulties (collectively known as parkinsonism ) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system , and ataxia . This is caused by progressive degeneration of neurons in several parts of the brain including the substantia nigra , striatum , inferior olivary nucleus , and cerebellum . Many people affected by multiple system atrophy experience dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, which commonly manifests as orthostatic hypotension , impotence , loss of sweating , dry mouth and urinary retention and incontinence . Palsy of the vocal cords is an important and sometimes initial clinical manifestation of the disorder
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Muscular Dystrophy
MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time. The disorders differ in which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin. Many people will eventually become unable to walk. Some types are also associated with problems in other organs . There are nine main categories of muscular dystrophy that contain more than thirty specific types. The most common type is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) which typically affects males beginning around the age of four. Other types include Becker muscular dystrophy , facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy , and myotonic dystrophy . They are due to mutations in genes that are involved in making muscle proteins
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Niemann–Pick Disease
9016 34341 33390 MEDLINEPLUS 001207 EMEDICINE derm/699 PATIENT UK Niemann–Pick disease MESH D009542 GENEREVIEWS * Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency — includes: Niemann–Pick Disease Type A, B * Niemann-Pick Disease Type CNIEMANN–PICK DISEASE (/niːmənˈpɪk/ nee-mən-PIK ) is a group of inherited, severe metabolic disorders in which sphingomyelin accumulates in lysosomes in cells. The lysosomes normally transport material through and out of the cell. This disease involves dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids , which are fats found in cell membranes, so it is a kind of sphingolipidosis . Sphingolipidoses, in turn, are included in the larger family of lysosomal storage diseases
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Osteoarthritis
OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone . The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant. Other symptoms may include joint swelling , decreased range of motion , and when the back is affected weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knee, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the symptoms come on over years. It can affect work and normal daily activities. Unlike other types of arthritis , only the joints are typically affected. Causes include previous joint injury, abnormal joint or limb development, and inherited factors
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Aging
AGEING or AGING (see spelling differences ), is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to human beings, many animals, and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, perennial plants and some simple animals are potentially immortal . In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence ) or to the population of a species (population ageing ). In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time, encompassing physical , psychological , and social changes. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases: of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes
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Disease
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function. The study of disease is called pathology , which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system , such as an immunodeficiency , or by a hypersensitivity , including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by Plasmodium ssp.), the term disease is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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