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Degenerative Disease
Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.[1] Degenerative diseases are often contrasted with infectious diseases. Examples[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Biological Tissue
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The English word is derived from the French tissu, meaning something that is woven, from the verb tisser, "to weave". The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades,[clarification needed] developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues
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Niemann–Pick Disease
Niemann–Pick disease
Niemann–Pick disease
(/niːmənˈpɪk/ nee-mən-PIK)[1] is a group of inherited, severe metabolic disorders in which sphingomyelin accumulates in lysosomes in cells
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Leukodystrophy
Leukodystrophy is one of a group of disorders characterized by degeneration of the white matter in the brain.[1] The word leukodystrophy comes from the Greek roots leuko, "white", dys, "abnormal", and troph, "growth". The leukodystrophies are caused by imperfect growth or development of the myelin sheath, the fatty covering that acts as an insulator around nerve fibers.[2] When damage occurs to white matter, immune responses can lead to inflammation in the CNS, along with loss of myelin. The degeneration of white matter can be seen in a MRI and used to diagnose leukodystrophy. Leukodystrophy is characterized by specific symptoms including decreased motor function, muscle rigidity, and eventually degeneration of sight and hearing. While the disease is fatal, the age of onset is a key factor as infants are given a lifespan of 2–8 years (sometimes longer), while adults typically live more than a decade after onset
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Macular Degeneration
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.[1] Early on there are often no symptoms.[1] Over time, however, some people experience a gradual worsening of vision that may affect one or both eyes.[1] While it does not result in complete blindness, loss of central vision can make it hard to recognize faces, drive, read, or perform other activities of daily life.[1] Visual hallucinations may also occur and these do not represent a mental illness.[1] Macular degeneration typically occurs in older people.[1] Genetic factors and smoking also play a role.[1] It is due to damage to the macula of the retina.[1] Diagnosis is by a complete eye exam.[1] The severity is divided into early, intermediate, and late types.[1] The late type is additionally divided into "dry" and "wet" forms with the dry form making up 90% of cases.[1][3] Prevention includes exercising
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Marfan's Syndrome
Marfan syndrome
Marfan syndrome
(MFS) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue.[2] The degree to which people are affected varies.[2] People with Marfan tend to be tall, and thin, with long arms, legs, fingers, and toes.[2] They also typically have flexible joints and scoliosis.[2] The most serious complications involve the heart and aorta with an increased risk of mitral valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm.[2][6] Other commonly affected areas include the lungs, eyes, bones, and the covering of the spinal cord.[2] MFS is an autosomal dominant disorder.[2] About 75% of the time, the condition is inherited from a parent
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Mitochondrial Myopathy
Mitochondrial myopathies are types of myopathies associated with mitochondrial disease.[1] On biopsy, the muscle tissue of patients with these diseases usually demonstrate "ragged red" muscle fibers. These ragged-red fibers contain mild accumulations of glycogen and neutral lipids, and may show an increased reactivity for succinate dehydrogenase and a decreased reactivity for cytochrome c oxidase. Inheritance was believed to be maternal (non-Mendelian extranuclear). It is now known that certain nuclear DNA deletions can also cause mitochondrial myopathy such as the OPA1 gene deletion
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Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS or MDDS) is any of a group of autosomal recessive disorders that cause a significant drop in mitochondrial DNA in affected tissues. Symptoms can be any combination of myopathic, hepatopathic, or encephalomyopathic.[1] These syndromes affect tissue in the muscle, liver, or both the muscle and brain, respectively
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Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
(MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.[1] This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems.[5][8][9] Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation, or trouble with coordination.[1] MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks (relapsing forms) or building up
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Multiple System Atrophy
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy–Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder[1] characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia. This is caused by progressive degeneration of neurons in several parts of the brain including the substantia nigra, striatum, inferior olivary nucleus, and cerebellum. Many people affected by multiple system atrophy experience dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, which commonly manifests as orthostatic hypotension, impotence, loss of sweating, dry mouth and urinary retention and incontinence
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Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy
(MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time.[1] The disorders differ in which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin.[1] Many people will eventually become unable to walk.[2] Some types are also associated with problems in other organs.[2][not in citation given] There are nine main categories of muscular dystrophy that contain more than thirty specific types.[1][2] The most common type is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) which typically affects males beginn
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Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is the general name for a family of at least eight genetically separate neurodegenerative disorders that result from excessive accumulation of lipopigments (lipofuscin) in the body's tissues.[1] These lipopigments are made up of fats and proteins. Their name comes from the word stem lipo-, which is a variation on "lipid" or "fat", and from the term pigment, used because the substances take on a greenish-yellow color when viewed under an ultraviolet light microscope
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Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis
(OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.[5] The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness.[1] Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant.[1] Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and when the back is affected weakness or numbness of the arms and legs.[1] The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knee, and hips.[1] Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the
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Organ (anatomy)
Organs are collections of tissues with a similar function. Plant
Plant
and animal life relies on many organs that coexist in organ systems.[2] Organs are composed of main tissue, parenchyma, and "sporadic" tissues, stroma. The main tissue is that which is unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium, the main tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in all organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria the functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle
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Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.[3] It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly.[3] Bones that commonly break include the vertebrae in the spine, the bones of the forearm, and the hip.[8] Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms.[3] Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously.[3] Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may
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Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease
(PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.[1] The symptoms generally come on slowly over time.[1] Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking.[1] Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur.[2] Dementia
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