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Deep-fried
DEEP FRYING (also referred to as DEEP FAT FRYING) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat , most commonly oil , rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying , done in a frying pan . Normally, a deep fryer or chip pan is used for this; industrially, a pressure fryer or vacuum fryer may be used. Deep frying may also be performed using oil that is heated in a pot. Deep frying is classified as hot-fat cooking method. Typically, deep frying foods cook quickly: all sides of a food are cooked simultaneously as oil has a high rate of heat conduction. The term "deep frying" and many modern deep-fried foods were not invented until the 19th century, but the practice has been around for millennia. Early records and cookbooks suggest that the practice began in a few European and Arabian countries before other countries adopted the practice
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Sieve
A SIEVE, or SIFTER, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample, typically using a woven screen such as a mesh or net or metal. The word "sift" derives from "sieve". In cooking, a sifter is used to separate and break up clumps in dry ingredients such as flour , as well as to aerate and combine them. A STRAINER is a form of sieve used to separate solids from liquid. CONTENTS * 1 Industrial strainer * 2 Sieving * 3 Wooden sieves * 4 US standard test sieve series * 5 Other types of sieves * 6 See also * 7 References INDUSTRIAL STRAINERSome industrial strainers available are simplex basket strainers, duplex basket strainers , and Y strainers. Simple basket strainers are used to protect valuable or sensitive equipment in systems that are meant to be shut down temporarily. Some commonly used strainers are bell mouth strainers, foot valve strainers, basket strainers
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Batter (cooking)
BATTER is thin dough that can be easily poured into a pan. Batter is used mainly for pancakes , light cakes , and as a coating for fried foods. The word batter comes from the old French word battre which means to beat, as many batters require vigorous beating or whisking in their preparation. CONTENTS * 1 Methods * 2 Beer
Beer
batter * 3 Cuisine
Cuisine
and batters * 4 References * 5 External links METHODSMany batters are made by combining dry flours with liquids such as water , milk or eggs . Batters can also be made by soaking grains in water and grinding them wet. Often a leavening agent such as baking powder is included to aerate and fluff up the batter as it cooks, or the mixture may be naturally fermented for this purpose as well as to add flavour. Carbonated water or another carbonated liquid such as beer may instead be used to aerate the batter in some recipes
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Maillard Reaction
The MAILLARD REACTION (/maɪˈjɑːr/ my-YAR ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor. Seared steaks, pan-fried dumplings, cookies and other kinds of biscuits, breads, toasted marshmallows, and many other foods, undergo this reaction. It is named after French chemist Louis-Camille Maillard , who first described it in 1912 while attempting to reproduce biological protein synthesis . The reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning which typically proceeds rapidly from around 140 to 165 °C (280 to 330 °F). At higher temperatures, caramelization and subsequently pyrolysis become more pronounced
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Proteins
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication
DNA replication
, responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
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Agemono Nabe
AGEMONO NABE (Japanese: 揚げ物鍋, literally: pot for fried things) are very thick pots used for deep frying in the Japanese kitchen . They are made usually of either cast iron or heavy brass. The thickness ensures an even temperature of the oil inside of the pot. Thin pots cannot maintain an even temperature of the oil, possibly allowing food to slightly under- or overcook. The agemono nabe is usually used in combination with metal-ended Japanese kitchen chopsticks , a net ladle or scoop ami shakushi , and a tool to drain the oil after frying abura kiri
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Bramboráček
POTATO PANCAKES, LATKES or BOXTIES are shallow-fried pancakes of grated or ground potato , flour and egg , often flavored with grated garlic or onion and seasoning . They may be topped with a variety of condiments , ranging from the savory (such as sour cream or cottage cheese ), to the sweet (such as apple sauce or sugar ), or they may be served plain. The dish is sometimes made from mashed potatoes to make pancake-shaped croquettes
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Cast Iron
CAST IRON is a group of iron -carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon
Carbon
(C) ranging from 1.8–4 wt%, and silicon (Si) 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron
Iron
alloys with lower carbon content (~0.8%) are known as steel
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Doughnut
A DOUGHNUT or DONUT (both: /ˈdoʊnət/ or /ˈdoʊnʌt/ ; see spelling differences ) is a type of fried dough confectionery or dessert food. The doughnut is popular in many countries and prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, supermarkets, food stalls, and franchised specialty outlets . Doughnuts are usually deep fried from a flour dough, and typically either ring-shaped or without a hole, and often filled. Other types of batters can also be used, and various toppings and flavorings are used for different types, such as sugar, chocolate, or maple glazing. Doughnuts may also include water, leavening , eggs, milk, sugar, oil, shortening , and natural or artificial flavors. The two most common types are the ring doughnut and the filled doughnut, which is injected with fruit preserves , cream , custard , or other sweet fillings. Small pieces of dough are cooked as doughnut holes
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Ami Jakushi
AMI JAKUSHI (網杓子) is a Skimmer used in the Japanese kitchen . The Skimmer is made from a fine wire mesh and is used to remove small pieces of unwanted food or foam from a liquid . For example, in deep frying , the ami jakushi is used to remove small drops of batter during the frying of tempura . Another example would be the removal of foam from a miso soup to achieve a more pleasing aesthetic
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Denaturation (food)
The word DENATURE is used in two food-related contexts. PROTEINWhen preparing proteins for consumption, there are three ways of denaturing the proteins: heating, acids, and mechanical force (e.g. whisking eggs). All three methods have the same result: hydrogen bonds in the proteins are broken allowing the proteins to "unwind". When the proteins are unwound, they have been altered from their natural state and are considered denatured. Once denatured, the proteins are free to interact with other chemicals in the food like the Maillard reaction or recombine with itself to coagulate . PREVENTING CONSUMPTIONTo render food unpleasant or dangerous to consume, it is denatured by adding a substance known as a denaturant. Aversive agents —primarily bitterants and pungent agents —are used to produce an unpleasant flavor. For example, the bitterant denatonium might be added to food used in a laboratory , where such food is not intended for human consumption
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Starches
STARCH or AMYLUM is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds . This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes , wheat , maize (corn), rice , and cassava . Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin . Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen , the glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting , and fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer , whisky and biofuel . It is processed to produce many of the sugars used in processed foods
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Dutch Oven
A DUTCH OVEN is a thick-walled cooking pot with a tight-fitting lid. Dutch ovens are usually made of seasoned cast iron , however some Dutch ovens are instead made of cast aluminium, or are ceramic. Some metal varieties are enameled rather than being seasoned. Dutch ovens have been used as cooking vessels for hundreds of years. They are called CASSEROLE DISHES in English speaking countries other than the United States
United States
("casserole" means "pot" in French), and cocottes in French. They are similar to both the Japanese tetsunabe and the Sač , a traditional Balkan cast-iron oven, and are related to the South African Potjie and the Australian
Australian
Bedourie oven
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Meat Thermometer
A MEAT THERMOMETER or COOKING THERMOMETER is a thermometer used to measure the internal temperature of meat , especially roasts and steaks , and other cooked foods. The degree of "doneness" of meat or bread correlates closely with the internal temperature, so that a thermometer reading indicates when it is cooked as desired. When cooking, food should always be cooked so that the interior reaches a temperature sufficient, that in the case of meat is enough to kill pathogens that may cause foodborne illness or, in the case of bread, that is done baking ; the thermometer helps to ensure this. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Use * 2.1 Poultry * 2.2 Beef, lamb, or veal * 2.3 Pork * 2.4 Ground meat * 2.5 Casseroles, and eggs * 2.6 Seafood * 2.7 Bread * 3 Other cooking thermometers * 4 External links * 5 References CHARACTERISTICSA meat thermometer is a unit which will measure core temperature of meats while cooking
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Slotted Spoon
A SLOTTED SPOON is an implement used in food preparation . The term can be used to describe any spoon with slots, holes or other openings in the bowl of the spoon which let liquid pass through while preserving the larger solids on top. It is similar in function to a sieve ; however, a ladle -sized slotted spoon is most typically used to retrieve items from a cooking liquid while preserving the liquid in the pot, while table-sized slotted spoons are often used to serve foods prepared or packaged in juices, such as canned fruit and vegetables . One peculiar example of a slotted spoon is used in the traditional absinthe ritual. In the beginning of absinthe preparation, a special absinthe spoon helps to flavor the cocktail
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Wok
A WOK (from Cantonese
Cantonese
Chinese : 鑊) is a versatile round-bottomed cooking vessel , originating from China
China
. The use of the wok is very prevalent in South China
China
(particularly Guangdong Province
Guangdong Province
). It is one of the most common cooking utensils in China
China
and also found in parts of East , South and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, as well as becoming a popular niche cookware in all the world. Woks are used in a range of different Chinese cooking techniques , including stir frying , steaming , pan frying , deep frying , poaching , boiling , braising , searing , stewing , making soup , smoking and roasting nuts. Wok
Wok
cooking is done with long-handled utensils called chahn (spatula ) or hoak (ladle )
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