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Cuba
Coordinates : 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000 Republic of Cuba República de Cuba
Cuba
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish) "Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!" ANTHEM: La Bayamesa
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Workers Of The World, Unite!
The political slogan WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITE! is one of the most famous rallying cries from the Communist Manifesto (1848), by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(German : Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" but soon popularized in English as " Workers of the world, unite!
Workers of the world, unite!
You have nothing to lose but your chains!") A variation of this phrase ("Workers of all lands, unite") is also inscribed on Marx's tombstone. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Variations * 3 Non-English usage * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWFive years before the Communist Manifesto, the phrase appeared in the 1843 book "The Workers' Union" by Flora Tristan
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Gini Coefficient
In economics , the GINI COEFFICIENT (sometimes expressed as a GINI RATIO or a normalized GINI INDEX) (/dʒini/ jee-nee ) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian : Variabilità e mutabilità). The Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income ). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income)
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Independence
INDEPENDENCE is a condition of a nation , country , or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government , and usually sovereignty , over the territory. The opposite of independence is a dependent territory . CONTENTS* 1 Definition of independence * 1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy * 2 Declarations of independence * 3 Historical overview * 4 Continents * 5 Notes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Article note DEFINITION OF INDEPENDENCEWhether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as a legitimate means to achieving sovereignty. While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Zambo
ZAMBO (Spanish: or ) and CAFUZO (Portuguese: ) are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo , is considered a slur). Historically, the racial cross between African slaves and Amerindians was referred to as a zambaggoa, then zambo, then sambo. In the United States, the word sambo is thought to refer to the racial cross between a black slave and a white person. The meaning of the term sambo however is contested in North America, where other etymologies have been proposed. The word most likely originated from one of the Romance languages , or Latin
Latin
and its direct descendants. The feminine word is zamba (not to be confused with the Argentine Zamba folk dance , although there is some relationship in the concept)
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Mestizo
MESTIZO (/mɛˈstizoʊ/ ; Peninsular Spanish : , Latin American Spanish , Philippine Spanish : ) is a term traditionally used in Spain, the Philippines, parts of Central America, especially in Belize and Latin America which originally meant a person of combined European and Amerindian or Pacific Islander descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire 's control of their New World colonies. Nowadays though, particularly in Latin America , Mestizo has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as Mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry, and with the term "Indian" being reserved exclusively for people who have maintained a separate ethnic identity, language, tribal affiliation, etc
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Pardo
PARDO is a word used in the Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Europeans
Europeans
, Native Americans , and West Africans . They are defined as neither exclusively mestizo (Native American-European descent), nor mulatto (African-European descent), nor zambo (African-Native American descent). It is highly associated with the history of slavery and colonialism. From the 18th century, the term has been used more widely to identify a brown skin colour. But in general use, the physical characteristics may include brown skin ranging from dark brown to almost white. Similarly, the person's hair could be curly, straight, or other texture, and any colour. In Brazil, the word pardo has had a general meaning, since the beginning of the colonization
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Mulatto
MULATTO is a term used to refer to persons born of one white parent and one black parent or to persons born of a mulatto parent or parents. In English, the term is today generally confined to historical contexts
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List Of Countries By GDP (nominal) Per Capita
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values . This is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, converted at market exchange rates to current U.S. dollars , divided by the average population for the same year. The figures presented here do not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency . Such fluctuations change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference to the standard of living of its population. Therefore, these figures should be used with caution. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living ; although this is problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income
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Unitary State
A UNITARY STATE is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states , 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France
France
being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute , the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers
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