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Committee Of Public Safety
The COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY (French: Comité de salut public)—created in April 1793 by the National Convention
National Convention
and then restructured in July 1793—formed the de facto executive government in France
France
during the Reign of Terror (1793–94), a stage of the French Revolution
French Revolution
. The Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence (established in January 1793) and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine, and later of twelve, members—was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial, and legislative efforts
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Stanislas Fréron
LOUIS-MARIE STANISLAS FRéRON (17 August 1754 – 15 July 1802) was a French politician, journalist, representative to the National Assembly, and a representative on mission during the French Revolution . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Early Revolutionary activities * 2.1 Siege of Toulon * 3 Reaction and the Directory * 4 References BACKGROUNDThe son of Elie-Catherine Fréron , he was born in Paris to a wealthy family. His father was a prominent journalist and popular opponent of the philosophes and encyclopédistes , his most notable opponent being Voltaire (who openly considered Elie his enemy), and it is surmised that his father's history of conflict with the state over freedom of the press heavily influenced Louis Fréron's political views. He attended the Lycée Louis-le-Grand , where his father held a faculty position, together with the likes of Maximilien Robespierre and Camille Desmoulins
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Hôtel De Ville, Paris
The HôTEL DE VILLE (French pronunciation: ​ , City Hall ) in Paris , France, is the building housing the city's local administration. Standing on the place de l\'Hôtel-de-Ville in the 4th arrondissement , it has been the headquarters of the municipality of Paris
Paris
since 1357. It serves multiple functions, housing the local administration, the Mayor of Paris
Paris
(since 1977), and also serves as a venue for large receptions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Reconstruction * 3 Political venue * 4 Nearby places * 5 See also * 6 External links HISTORY Hotel de Ville, 1583 Events at the Hôtel de Ville (left) during the July Revolution
July Revolution
, by Joseph Beaume
Joseph Beaume
. Two wings were built a few years later. Hôtel de Ville after the Paris
Paris
Commune At turn of the century Hôtel de Ville, Paris
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Hautes-Pyrénées
HAUTES-PYRéNéES (French pronunciation: ​ ) (Gascon : Nauts Pirenèus / Hauts Pirenèus; Spanish : Altos Pirineos) is a department in southwestern France
France
. It is part of the Occitanie
Occitanie
region. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Tourism * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORYHistorically the area broadly covered by the département was known as Bigorre , a territory at times independent but later part of Gascony
Gascony
province . Large parts of the area were held by the English after the Treaty of Brétigny , 1360. In the 16th century, it was part of the Huguenot domain of the monarchs of Navarre , brought to France by Henri IV . For its early history, see Bigorre and Gascony
Gascony

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Haute-Garonne
HAUTE-GARONNE (French pronunciation: ​ ; Occitan : Nauta Garona; English: UPPER GARONNE) is a department in the southwest of France named after the Garonne
Garonne
river. Its main city and capital is Toulouse
Toulouse
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Politics * 4 Demographics * 5 Tourism * 5.1 Winter sports * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYHaute- Garonne
Garonne
is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution
French Revolution
on 4 March 1790. It was created from part of the former province of Languedoc
Languedoc
. The department was originally larger. The reduction in its area resulted from an imperial decree dated 21 November 1808 and which established the neighbouring department of Tarn-et- Garonne
Garonne
, to the north
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Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier
MARC-GUILLAUME ALEXIS VADIER (17 July 1736 – 14 December 1828) was a French politician of the French Revolution
French Revolution
. EARLY CAREERSon of a wealthy family in Pamiers , Ariège , he served in the army of the king Louis XV , taking part in the Seven Years\' War and the Battle of Rossbach on 5 November 1757. Upon his return to France
France
in 1758, Vadier acquired large tracts of land in Pamiers and in 1770 purchased the office of conseiller (magistrate ), which brought him into conflict with many of the local aristocracy and affluent bourgeoisie. Elected as deputy to the Third Estate in the Estates-General of France
France
for the County of Foix
Foix
(in 1789), Vadier took no prominent part in that assembly
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Tacitus
PUBLIUS (or GAIUS) CORNELIUS TACITUS (/ˈtæsᵻtəs/ ; Classical Latin: ; c. AD 56 – c. AD 120) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories —examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius
Tiberius
, Claudius
Claudius
, Nero
Nero
, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69). These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus
Augustus
, in AD 14, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War , in AD 70. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long
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De Facto
In law and government, DE FACTO (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/ ; Latin : de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: ), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards
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Constitution Of The Year III
The CONSTITUTION OF THE YEAR III is the constitution that founded the Directory . Adopted by the Convention on 5 Fructidor
Fructidor
Year III (22 August 1795) and approved by plebiscite on September 6, it preambled the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 during the French Revolution
French Revolution
. It remained in effect until the coup of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799) effectively ended the Revolution and began the ascendancy of Napoleon Bonaparte . It was more conservative than the abortive democratic French Constitution of 1793
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Joseph Fouché
JOSEPH FOUCHé, 1ST DUC D\\'OTRANTE (21 May 1759 – 25 December 1820) was a French statesman and Minister of Police under Napoleon
Napoleon
I . He was particularly known for his ferocity with which he suppressed the Lyon
Lyon
insurrection during the Revolution in 1793 and for being minister of police under the Directory , the Consulate , and the Empire . In English texts, his title is often translated as Duke of Otranto . CONTENTS * 1 Youth * 2 A revolutionary republican * 3 Conflict with Robespierre * 4 Directory * 5 In Napoleon\'s service * 6 Hundred Days
Hundred Days
and Bourbon restoration * 7 Character * 8 Works * 9 Family * 10 In literature and on screen * 11 References * 12 External links YOUTHFouché was born in Le Pellerin , a small village near Nantes
Nantes

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Augustin Robespierre
AUGUSTIN BON JOSEPH DE ROBESPIERRE (21 January 1763 – 28 July 1794) was the younger brother of French Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 The Convention * 3 Death * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links EARLY LIFEHe was born in Arras , the youngest of four children of the lawyer Maximilien-Barthelemy-François de Robespierre and Jacqueline-Marguerite Carraut, the daughter of a brewer. His mother died when he was one year old, and his grief-stricken father abandoned the family to go to Bavaria, where he died in 1777. He was brought up by an aunt and trained as a lawyer. His brother Maximilien had won a scholarship from the Abbey of St. Vaast to pay for his studies at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and had been such an outstanding student that when he obtained his degree in law, he asked the Abbot, Cardinal de Rohan , if he would transfer the scholarship to Augustin to allow him to follow the same career
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Law Of Frimaire
The LAW OF FRIMAIRE was passed on 5 December 1793, during the French Revolution , in which power became centralized and consolidated under the Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
. It stopped representatives on-mission from taking 'action' without the authority of the Committee. This was an attempt to bring order to the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
and make the representatives more accountable. REFERENCES * ^ Fenwick, Jill; Anderson, Judy (1 October 2005). Revolution: France. History Teachers' Association of Victoria
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Girondist
The GIRONDINS (French: ) or GIRONDISTS were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution
French Revolution
. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins
Girondins
were active within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention
National Convention
. They were part of the Jacobin movement—though not every Girondin was a member of the actual Jacobin
Jacobin
Club —until they were accused of monarchism and purged. The Girondins
Girondins
campaigned for the end of the monarchy, but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain
The Mountain
(Montagnards), a radical left-wing faction within the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club
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Maximin Isnard
MAXIMIN ISNARD (16 November 1755 Grasse
Grasse
, Alpes-Maritimes
Alpes-Maritimes
– 12 March 1825 Grasse), French revolutionary , was a dealer in perfumery at Draguignan
Draguignan
when he was elected deputy for the département of the Var to the Legislative Assembly , where he joined the Girondists . CONTENTS * 1 Before the French Revolution
French Revolution
* 2 Legislative Assembly * 3 Member of the National Convention
National Convention
* 4 President of the National Convention
National Convention
(May 1793) * 5 Flight * 6 1794-1795 * 7 1795-1797 * 8 End of life * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Others References BEFORE THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONBorn in 1755, he was the last son of Maximin Isnard
Maximin Isnard
and Anne-Thérèse Fanton
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Girondin
The GIRONDINS (French: ) or GIRONDISTS were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution
French Revolution
. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins
Girondins
were active within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention
National Convention
. They were part of the Jacobin movement—though not every Girondin was a member of the actual Jacobin
Jacobin
Club —until they were accused of monarchism and purged. The Girondins
Girondins
campaigned for the end of the monarchy, but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain
The Mountain
(Montagnards), a radical left-wing faction within the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club
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The Plain
THE PLAIN (French : La Plaine), mainly known as THE MARSH (French : Le Marais), was a political group in the French National Convention during the French Revolution . Its members were nicknamed as MARAISARDS or, derogatory, TOADS (French : Crapaud), like the toads are marshy animals. They sat between the Girondists ' right-wing and Montagnards ' left-wing . None of these three groups was an organized party as is known today. The Mountain and the Girondists did consist of individuals with similar views and agendas who socialized together and often coordinated political plans. The Plain, however, consisted of delegates that did not belong to either of these two groups and as such was even more amorphous
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