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Coastland
A COASTLINE or a SEASHORE is the area where land meets the sea or ocean , or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake . A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the Coastline paradox
Coastline paradox
. The term coastal zone is a region where interaction of the sea and land processes occurs. Both the terms coast and coastal are often used to describe a geographic location or region; for example, New Zealand's West Coast
Coast
, or the East and West Coasts of the United States . Edinburgh for example is a city on the coast of Scotland. A pelagic coast refers to a coast which fronts the open ocean, as opposed to a more sheltered coast in a gulf or bay
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Brackish Water
BRACKISH WATER or BRINY WATER is water that has more salinity than fresh water , but not as much as seawater . It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water, as in estuaries , or it may occur in brackish fossil aquifers. The word comes from the Middle Dutch root "brak". Certain human activities can produce brackish water, in particular civil engineering projects such as dikes and the flooding of coastal marshland to produce brackish water pools for freshwater prawn farming. Brackish water
Brackish water
is also the primary waste product of the salinity gradient power process. Because brackish water is hostile to the growth of most terrestrial plant species, without appropriate management it is damaging to the environment (see article on shrimp farms ). Technically, brackish water contains between 0.5 and 30 grams of salt per litre—more often expressed as 0.5 to 30 parts per thousand (‰), which is a specific gravity of between 1.005 and 1.010
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Seawater
SEAWATER, or SALT WATER, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM) This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+ ) and chloride (Cl− ) ions ). Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater
Seawater
is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases. At typical salinity, it freezes at about −2 °C (28 °F). The coldest seawater ever recorded (in a liquid state) was in 2010, in a stream under an Antarctic
Antarctic
glacier , and measured −2.6 °C (27.3 °F). Seawater
Seawater
pH is typically limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4
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Salt Marsh
A SALT MARSH or SALTMARSH, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh , is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open salt water or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides. It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as herbs , grasses , or low shrubs . These plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the salt marsh in trapping and binding sediments . Salt marshes play a large role in the aquatic food web and the delivery of nutrients to coastal waters. They also support terrestrial animals and provide coastal protection
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Beach
A BEACH is a landform along a body of water. It usually consists of loose particles, which are often composed of rock , such as sand , gravel , shingle , pebbles , or cobblestones . The particles composing a beach are occasionally biological in origin, such as mollusc shells or coralline algae . Some beaches have man-made infrastructure, such as lifeguard posts, changing rooms, and showers. They may also have hospitality venues (such as resorts, camps, hotels, and restaurants) nearby. Wild beaches, also known as undeveloped or undiscovered beaches, are not developed in this manner. Wild beaches can be valued for their untouched beauty and preserved nature. Beaches typically occur in areas along the coast where wave or current action deposits and reworks sediments
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Fresh Water
FRESH WATER is the debut album by Australian rock and blues singer Alison McCallum , released in 1972. Rare for an Australian artist at the time, it came in a gatefold sleeve. It was re-issued in 1974 under the title ANY WAY YOU WANT ME in a single sleeve with new artwork
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Ecosystem
An ECOSYSTEM is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem). Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems is obtained primarily from the sun. It generally enters the system through photosynthesis , a process that also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system
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Accretion (geology)
ACCRETION is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass . This material may be sediment, volcanic arcs , seamounts or other igneous features. DESCRIPTIONAccretion involves the addition of material to a tectonic plate. When two tectonic plates collide, one of the plates may slide under the other, a process known as subduction . The plate which is being subducted, is floating on the asthenosphere and is pushed against the other, over-riding plate. Sediment on the ocean floor will often be scraped from the subducting plate. This causes the sediment to accumulate as a mass of material called an accretionary wedge , which attaches itself to the upper plate. Volcanic island arcs or seamounts may collide with the continent, and as they are of relatively light material (i.e. low density) they will often not be subducted, but are added to the side of the continent
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Continental Shelf
The CONTINENTAL SHELF is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent , resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a SHELF SEA. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods . The shelf surrounding an island is known as an INSULAR SHELF. The continental margin , between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain , comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise. Extending as far as 500 km (310 mi) from the slope, it consists of thick sediments deposited by turbidity currents from the shelf and slope. The continental rise's gradient is intermediate between the slope and the shelf, on the order of 0.5–1°
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Ria
A RIA (/riːə/ or /riə/ ) is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley . It is a drowned river valley that remains open to the sea. Typically, rias have a dendritic , treelike outline although they can be straight and without significant branches. This pattern is inherited from the dendritic drainage pattern of the flooded river valley. The drowning of river valleys along a stretch of coast and formation of rias results in an extremely irregular and indented coastline. Often, there are islands, which are summits of partly submerged, pre-existing hill peaks. A RIA COAST is a coastline having several parallel rias separated by prominent ridges, extending a distance inland. The sea level change that caused the submergence of a river valley may be either eustatic (where global sea levels rise), or isostatic (where the local land sinks)
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Somalia
Coordinates : 10°N 49°E / 10°N 49°E / 10; 49 Federal Republic
Republic
of Somalia
Somalia
Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya (Somali ) جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية ( Arabic
Arabic
) Jumhūrīyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fidirālīyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Qolobaa Calankeed Location of Somalia. Capital and largest city Mogadishu
Mogadishu
2°2′N 45°21′E / 2.033°N 45.350°E / 2.033; 45.350 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Somali * Arabic
Arabic
RELIGION Islam DEMONYM Somali GOVERNMENT Federal parliamentary republic • PRESIDENT Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed • PRIME MINISTER Hassan Ali Khayre LEGISLATURE Federal Parliament FORMATION • SOMALI CITY-STATES c
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Insect
See text . SYNONYMS * Ectognatha * EntomidaINSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin
Latin
insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth
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Harbor
A HARBOR or HARBOUR (see spelling differences ), or HAVEN, is a body of water where ships, boats and barges seek shelter from stormy weather, or are stored for future use. The term "harbor", referring primarily to a sheltered body of water, is often used interchangeably with "port ", which is a man-made facility built for loading and unloading vessels and dropping off and picking up passengers. Ports usually include one or more harbors. Alexandria Port
Port
is an example of a port with two harbors. Harbors can be natural or artificial. An artificial harbor can have deliberately constructed breakwaters , sea walls , or jettys , or they can be constructed by dredging , which requires maintenance by further periodic dredging
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia
South Asia
. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west; China
China
, Nepal
Nepal
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
Maldives

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