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Coal Mining
Coal
Coal
mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal
Coal
is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel
Steel
and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, and the above-ground structures the pit head. In Australia, "colliery" generally refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States, "colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used. Coal
Coal
mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines
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Coalmine (song)
"Coalmine'" is a song written by Roxie Dean, Ron Harbin and Richie McDonald, and recorded by American country music artist Sara Evans. It was released in April 2006 as the third single from her album Real Fine Place.Contents1 Content 2 Chart performance 3 References 4 External linksContent[edit] "Coalmine" is an uptempo fiddle-driven song about a woman who loves her man, a coal miner, and wants him to love her until he returns to work again. Despite Evans coming off two Top 10 hits on the country charts, "Coalmine" met resistance with country radio due to the timing of its release following a deadly explosion at Sago Mine, West Virginia
West Virginia
a few months earlier
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Power Shovel
A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel or Electric Rope Shovel
Shovel
[2]) is a bucket-equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction.[3] Power Shovels are a type of rope/cable excavator, where the digging arm is controlled and powered by winches and steel ropes, rather than hydraulics like in the more common hydraulic excavators.P&H 4100 XPB cable loading shovel.Contents1
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Coal Miner (statue)
The Coal Miner is a public artwork by Polish American
Polish American
artist John J. Szaton (1907–1966) which is located in two US State capitals; the original, commissioned in 1963 in Springfield, Illinois, as well as a copy on the west lawn of the Indiana Statehouse
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Tagebau Hambach
The Tagebau Hambach is a large open-pit coal mine (German: Tagebau) in Niederzier
Niederzier
and Elsdorf, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. It is operated by RWE
RWE
and used for mining lignite. The mine is on the site of the ancient Hambach Forest
Hambach Forest
which was purchased by RWE
RWE
in 1978. They then cut most of it down and cleared it to mine. Only 10% of the forest remains
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Cerrejón
Cerrejón
Cerrejón
is a large open-pit coal mine in Colombia. It is located in the southeast of the department of La Guajira, close to the border with Venezuela. The coal mine is situated in the northeastern part of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin, the basin of the Ranchería River, between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
in the west and the Serranía del Perijá to the southeast. At Cerrejón, low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal from the Cerrejón Formation
Cerrejón Formation
is excavated. The mine is one of the largest of its type, the largest in Latin America and the tenth biggest in the world. Cerrejón
Cerrejón
extends over 690 square kilometres (270 sq mi). It is divided into three sections, North Zone, Central Zone and South Zone. Total proven reserves are estimated at 503 megatonnes
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Colombia
Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order"Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish) O unfading glory!Location of  Colombia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Bogotá 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067Official languages SpanishaRecognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface[1], with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Naming 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
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New South Wales
New South Wales
Wales
(abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland
Queensland
to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia
Australia
to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
to the east. The Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In March 2017[update], the population of New South Wales
Wales
was over 7.8 million,[9] making it Australia's most populous state
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Dragline
A dragline excavator is a piece of heavy equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining. Draglines fall into two broad categories: those that are based on standard, lifting cranes, and the heavy units which have to be built on-site. Most crawler cranes, with an added winch drum on the front, can act as a dragline. These units (like other cranes) are designed to be dismantled and transported over the road on flatbed trailers. Draglines used in civil engineering are almost always of this smaller, crane type. These are used for road, port construction, pond and canal dredging, and as pile driving rigs. These types are built by crane manufacturers such as Link-Belt and Hyster. The much larger type which is built on site is commonly used in strip-mining operations to remove overburden above coal and more recently for oil sands mining. The largest heavy draglines are among the largest mobile land machines ever built
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Excavator
Excavators (hydraulic) are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house".[1] The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often mistakenly called power shovels
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Steam Shovel
A steam shovel is a large steam-powered excavating machine designed for lifting and moving material such as rock and soil. It is the earliest type of power shovel or excavator. Steam shovels played a major role in public works in the 19th and early 20th century, being key to the construction of railroads and the Panama Canal
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Bucket-wheel Excavator
Bucket-wheel excavators (BWEs) are heavy equipment used in surface mining. The primary function of BWEs is to act as a continuous digging machine in large-scale open-pit mining operations. What sets BWEs apart from other large-scale mining equipment, such as bucket chain excavators, is their use of a large wheel consisting of a continuous pattern of buckets used to scoop material as the wheel turns
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Underground Mining (soft Rock)
Underground soft rock mining is a group of underground mining techniques used to extract coal, oil shale, potash and other minerals or geological materials from sedimentary ("soft") rocks. [1] Because deposits in sedimentary rocks are commonly layered and relatively less hard, the mining methods used differ from those used to mine deposits in igneous or metamorphic rocks (see Underground mining (hard rock)). Underground mining techniques also differ greatly from those of surface mining.Contents1 Methods1.1 Mine shorthand2 See also 3 References 4 External linksMethods[edit]Longwall mining – A set of longwall mining equipment consists of a coal shearer mounted on conveyor operating underneath a series of self-advancing hydraulic roof supports. Almost the entire process can be automated. Longwall mining
Longwall mining
machines are typically 150–250 metres in width and 1.5 to 3 metres high
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Clay County, Kentucky
Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,730.[1] Its county seat is Manchester.[2] The county was formed in 1807 and named in honor of Green Clay (1757–1826).[3] Clay was a member of the Virginia and Kentucky State legislatures, first cousin once removed of Henry Clay, U.S. Senator from Kentucky and Secretary of State in the 19th century.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Adjacent counties3 Demographics 4 Communities4.1 City 4.2 Census-designated place 4.3 Other unincorporated places5 Politics 6 Health6.1 Life expectancy7 See also 8 References8.1 Further reading9 External linksHistory[edit] Clay County was established in 1807 from land given by Floyd, Knox and Madison counties. The courthouse burned in January 1936.[4] Geography[edit] According to the U.S
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Room And Pillar
Room and pillar
Room and pillar
(variant of breast stoping), also called pillar and stall,[1] is a mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane, creating horizontal arrays of rooms and pillars. The ore is extracted in two phases. In the first, "pillars" of untouched material are left to support the roof overburden, and open areas or "rooms" are extracted underground; the pillars are then partially extracted in the same manner as in the "Bord & Pillar method". The technique is usually used for relatively flat-lying deposits, such as those that follow a particular stratum. The room and pillar system is used in mining coal, iron and base metals ores, particularly when found as manto or blanket deposits, stone and aggregates, talc, soda ash and potash. [2] The key to successful room and pillar mining is in the selection of the optimum pillar size
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