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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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List Of Language Regulators
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages , often called LANGUAGE ACADEMIES. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism , and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries , which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English " (e.g. Basic English , Simplified Technical English ) or George Orwell
George Orwell
's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English
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Chinese Braille (other)
CHINESE BRAILLE refers to Standard Mandarin
Standard Mandarin
braille systems that include : * Mainland Chinese Braille (for Putonghua in China) * Two-Cell Chinese Braille (for
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Taiwan
TAIWAN (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), is a state in East Asia
East Asia
. Its neighbors include the People\'s Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. Taiwan
Taiwan
is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations
United Nations
. The island of Taiwan
Taiwan
, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, the last dynasty of China
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Sinitic Languages
The SINITIC LANGUAGES, often synonymous with the group of CHINESE varieties , are a family of Sino-Tibetan languages
Sino-Tibetan languages
. They have frequently been postulated to constitute a primary branch, but this is rejected by an increasing number of researchers. The Bai languages and possible relatives , whose classification is difficult, may also be Sinitic; otherwise Sinitic is equivalent to Chinese, and the term may be used to indicate that the varieties of Chinese are distinct languages rather than dialects of a single language. REFERENCES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Sinitic". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Macro-Bai". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
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National Languages Committee
The NATIONAL LANGUAGES COMMITTEE was established in 1928 by the Ministry of Education of the Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) with the purpose of standardizing and popularizing the usage of Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
(also called Mandarin) in the Republic of China
Republic of China
. The Committee was known in English as the MANDARIN PROMOTION COUNCIL or the NATIONAL LANGUAGES PROMOTION COMMITTEE until 2003, but the Chinese name has not changed. The phrase Guoyu (國語 "National language") typically refers to Standard Chinese, but could also be interpreted as referring to "national languages". The phrase Due to the reorganization of the Executive Yuan, the duties of the National Languages Committee
National Languages Committee
were transferred to the Department of Lifelong Education's fourth sector (Reading and Language Education), starting from 2013
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Civil Service Bureau
The CIVIL SERVICE BUREAU is one of the 13 policy bureaux under the Government Secretariat of the Government of Hong Kong and is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies on the management of the Hong Kong Civil Service . The Civil Service Bureau
Civil Service Bureau
(CSB) is led by the Secretary for the Civil Service and has approximately 600 staff. The CSB absorbed the Official Languages Agency (from 1 July 2003) and the Civil Service Training and Development Institute (from 1 April 2004)
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Singapore
SINGAPORE (/ˈsɪŋəpɔːr/ ( listen ), /ˈsɪŋɡə-/ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. It lies one degree (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator , at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula , with Indonesia
Indonesia
's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets . Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 square kilometres or 50 square miles)
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'Phags-pa Script
The ‘PHAGS-PA SCRIPT (Mongolian : дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor ) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan , the founder of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan. The actual use of this script was limited to about a hundred years during the Mongol Yuan dynasty, and it fell out of use with the advent of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
. The documentation of its use provides clues about the changes in the varieties of Chinese , the Tibetic languages , Mongolian and other neighboring languages during the Yuan era
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Macau
MACAU (/məˈkaʊ/ ( listen ); 澳門; 澳门; literally: "Bay Gate"), also spelled MACAO, is an autonomous region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia
East Asia
. Macau
Macau
is bordered by the city of Zhuhai
Zhuhai
in Mainland China
China
to the north and the Pearl River Delta to the east and south. Hong Kong
Hong Kong
lies about 64 kilometres (40 mi) to its east across the Delta. With a population of 650,900 living in an area of 30.5 km2 (11.8 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world. A former Portuguese colony, it was returned to Chinese sovereignty on 20 December 1999. Macau
Macau
was administered by the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
and its inheritor states from the mid-16th century until late 1999, when it constituted the last remaining European colony in Asia
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Hong Kong
HONG KONG (Chinese : 香港, Cantonese: ), officially the HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION OF THE PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, is an autonomous territory on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia
East Asia
, south of the mainland Chinese province of Guangdong
Guangdong
, and east of the special administrative region of Macau
Macau
. With over 7.3 million Hongkongers of various nationalities in a territory of 1,104 km2, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
is the fourth-most densely populated region in the world . Hong Kong
Hong Kong
was formerly a colony of the British Empire
British Empire
, after the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island from Qing China
China
at the conclusion of the First Opium War
First Opium War
in 1842
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