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Chicken (food)
Chicken
Chicken
is the most common type of poultry in the world. In developed countries , chickens are typically subject to intensive farming methods. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Breeding * 3 Edible components * 4 Health * 4.1 Use of Roxarsone
Roxarsone
in chicken production * 4.2 Antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic resistance
* 4.3 Fecal matter contamination * 5 Marketing and sales * 6 Cooking * 7 Freezing * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORYThe modern chicken is a descendant of red junglefowl hybrids along with the grey junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. Chicken
Chicken
as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC
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Pantothenic Acid
PANTOTHENIC ACID, also called VITAMIN B5 (a B vitamin ), is a water-soluble vitamin . Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient . Animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins , carbohydrates , and fats . The anion is called PANTOTHENATE. Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoic acid and β-alanine . Its name derives from the Greek pantothen, meaning "from everywhere", and small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in fortified whole-grain cereals , egg yolks , liver and dried mushrooms . It is commonly found as its alcohol analog, the provitamin panthenol (pantothenol), and as calcium pantothenate. Pantothenic acid was discovered by Roger J. Williams in 1933
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Dietary Element
In the context of nutrition, a MINERAL is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Minerals originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms. Plants get minerals from soil . Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water. As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins , essential fatty acids , and essential amino acids . The five major minerals in the human body are calcium , phosphorus , potassium , sodium , and magnesium . All of the remaining elements in a human body are called "trace elements". The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are iron , cobalt , copper , zinc , manganese , molybdenum , iodine , and selenium . Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds
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Microgram
In the metric system , a MICROGRAM or MICROGRAMME (μG) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth (6991100000000000000♠1×10−9) of a kilogram , one millionth (6994100000000000000♠1×10−6) of a gram , or one thousandth (6997100000000000000♠1×10−3) of a milligram. The unit symbol is μG according to the International System of Units . In μg the prefix symbol for micro- is the Greek letter μ (Mu) . The recommended but questionable symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is MCG. ABBREVIATION AND SYMBOL CONFUSIONWhen the Greek lowercase “μ” (Mu) in the symbol μg is typographically unavailable, it is logically replaced by the Latin lowercase “u”. The United States-based Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) and the U.S
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Milligram
The KILOGRAM or KILOGRAMME (SI unit symbol: KG) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud , France. It is the only metric base unit which is defined by an artifact. The kilogram was originally defined as the weight of a litre (cubic decimetre) of water at the freezing point. That was an inconvenient quantity to precisely replicate, so in the late 18th century, a platinum artefact was fashioned as a standard for it. That artefact, or an exact replica thereof, has been the standard of mass for the metric system ever since. While the kilogram artefact is stored in laboratory conditions, it has been subject to deterioration as a result of handling and cleaning
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Vitamin A
VITAMIN A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol , retinal , retinoic acid , and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene ). Vitamin A has multiple functions: it is important for growth and development, for the maintenance of the immune system and good vision. Vitamin A is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of retinal, which combines with protein opsin to form rhodopsin , the light-absorbing molecule necessary for both low-light (scotopic vision) and color vision . Vitamin A also functions in a very different role as retinoic acid (an irreversibly oxidized form of retinol), which is an important hormone -like growth factor for epithelial and other cells. In foods of animal origin, the major form of vitamin A is an ester , primarily retinyl palmitate , which is converted to retinol (chemically an alcohol ) in the small intestine
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Vitamin
A VITAMIN is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term vitamin is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (one form of vitamin C ) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animal organisms. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems, but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by otherwise healthy people. By convention the term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients , such as dietary minerals , essential fatty acids , essential amino acids (which are needed in greater amounts than vitamins) or the many other nutrients that promote health, and are required less often to maintain the health of the organism
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Glycine
GLYCINE (abbreviated as GLY or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain . It is the simplest possible amino acid . The chemical formula of glycine is NH2 ‐CH2 ‐COOH . Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids . Its codons are GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG of the genetic code . Glycine
Glycine
is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that it is achiral . It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments since it exists as zwitterion at natural pH, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is GLYCYL
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Proline
PROLINE (abbreviated as PRO or P; encoded by the codons CCU, CCC, CCA, and CCG) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated NH2+ form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO− form under biological conditions), and a side chain pyrrolidine , classifying it as a nonpolar (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid . It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it from the non-essential amino acid L-glutamate . Proline
Proline
is the only proteinogenic amino acid with a secondary amine, in that the alpha-amino group is attached directly to the side chain, making the α carbon a direct substituent of the side chain
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Food Energy
FOOD ENERGY is chemical energy that animals (including humans ) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration . Cellular respiration may either involve the chemical reaction of food molecules with molecular oxygen (aerobic respiration) or the process of reorganizing the food molecules without additional oxygen (anaerobic respiration ). Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles. Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates , fats , proteins , water , vitamins , and minerals . Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water represent virtually all the weight of food, with vitamins and minerals making up only a small percentage of the weight. (Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins comprise ninety percent of the dry weight of foods. ) Organisms derive food energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as from organic acids , polyols , and ethanol present in the diet
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International Unit
In pharmacology , the INTERNATIONAL UNIT is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances. International units are used to quantify vitamins , hormones , some medications , vaccines , blood products , and similar biologically active substances. The name INTERNATIONAL UNIT has often been capitalized (in English and other languages), although major English-language dictionaries treat it as a common noun and thus use lower case. The name has several accepted abbreviations
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Developed Country
A DEVELOPED COUNTRY, INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRY, MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRY, or "MORE ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPED COUNTRY" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income , level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. Developed countries have post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector . They are contrasted with developing countries , which are in the process of industrialization , or undeveloped countries, which are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian
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Eastern Hemisphere
The EASTERN HEMISPHERE is a geographical term for the half of the earth which is east of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich
Greenwich
, England
England
) and west of the antimeridian . It is also used to refer to Europe
Europe
, Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, and Australia , in contrast with the Western Hemisphere , which includes North and South America
South America
. This hemisphere may also be called the "Oriental Hemisphere". In addition, it may be used in a cultural or geopolitical sense as a synonym for the "Old World "
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Onion
The ONION ( Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the BULB ONION or COMMON ONION, is a vegetable and is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium . Its close relatives include the garlic , shallot , leek , chive , and Chinese onion . This genus also contains several other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion ( Allium fistulosum ), the tree onion (A. ×proliferum), and the Canada onion ( Allium canadense ). The name "wild onion " is applied to a number of Allium species, but A. cepa is exclusively known from cultivation. Its ancestral wild original form is not known, although escapes from cultivation have become established in some regions. The onion is most frequently a biennial or a perennial plant , but is usually treated as an annual and harvested in its first growing season
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Milk
MILK is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals . It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum , which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose . As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy
Dairy
farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India
India
is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
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