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ChemSpider
CHEMSPIDER is a database of chemicals . ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Database * 2 Crowdsourcing * 3 Searching * 4 Chemistry document mark-up * 5 History * 6 Services * 6.1 SyntheticPages * 6.2 Open PHACTS * 7 See also * 8 References DATABASEThe database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including: * EPA DSSTox * U.S
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Data Dump
A DATABASE DUMP (also: SQL DUMP) contains a record of the table structure and/or the data from a database and is usually in the form of a list of SQL statements. A database dump is most often used for backing up a database so that its contents can be restored in the event of data loss . Corrupted databases can often be recovered by analysis of the dump. Database
Database
dumps are often published by free software and free content projects, to allow reuse or forking of the database
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Database Rights
A SUI GENERIS DATABASE RIGHT is considered to be a property right , comparable to but distinct from copyright , that exists to recognise the investment that is made in compiling a database, even when this does not involve the "creative" aspect that is reflected by copyright. CONTENTS * 1 Australia * 2 Brazil * 3 European Union
European Union
* 4 Russia * 5 United Kingdom * 6 United States * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links AUSTRALIANo specific law exists in Australia protecting databases. Databases may only be protected if they fall under general copyright law. Australian copyright law regarding compilations is currently examined in case law, where an initial case, Telstra v Desktop Marketing Systems was successfully litigated by Telstra, establishing a database right; however this was overturned in a later ruling, IceTV v Nine Network , where sufficient creativity was established as the defining characteristic of copyright
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Right To Fork
In software engineering , a PROJECT FORK happens when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct and separate piece of software. The term often implies not merely a development branch , but also a split in the developer community, a form of schism . Free and open-source software
Free and open-source software
is that which, by definition, may be forked from the original development team without prior permission, without violating copyright law. However, licensed forks of proprietary software (e.g. Unix
Unix
) also happen
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Free Content
FREE CONTENT, LIBRE CONTENT, or FREE INFORMATION, is any kind of functional work, work of art , or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work
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Open Data
OPEN DATA is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open data movement are similar to those of other "open" movements such as open source , open hardware , open content , open government and open access . The philosophy behind open data has been long established (for example in the Mertonian tradition of science ), but the term "open data" itself is recent, gaining popularity with the rise of the Internet and World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and, especially, with the launch of open-data government initiatives such as Data.gov and Data.gov.uk
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Text-mining
TEXT MINING, also referred to as TEXT DATA MINING, roughly equivalent to TEXT ANALYTICS, is the process of deriving high-quality information from text . High-quality information is typically derived through the devising of patterns and trends through means such as statistical pattern learning . Text mining
Text mining
usually involves the process of structuring the input text (usually parsing, along with the addition of some derived linguistic features and the removal of others, and subsequent insertion into a database ), deriving patterns within the structured data , and finally evaluation and interpretation of the output. 'High quality' in text mining usually refers to some combination of relevance , novelty , and interestingness
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Dictionary
A DICTIONARY is a collection of words in one or more specific languages , often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions , usage, etymologies , phonetics , pronunciations , translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon . It is a lexicographical product which shows inter-relationships among the data. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries . Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study
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Research Center
A RESEARCH CENTER is a facility or building dedicated to research , commonly with the focus on a specific area. There are over 14,000 research centers in the United States. Centers apply varied disciplines including basic research and applied research in addition to non traditional techniques. However, a research center should not be confused with a research institute . Additionally, today many universities are establishing research centers to conduct a specific research or education activity. Over a hundred of research centers can be established in one university. This number certainly differs from a university to a university, but most of the research centers there do bring something to the scientific table
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Unique Identifier
With reference to a given (possibly implicit) set of objects, a UNIQUE IDENTIFIER (UID) is any identifier which is guaranteed to be unique among all identifiers used for those objects and for a specific purpose. There are three main types of unique identifiers, each corresponding to a different generation strategy: * serial numbers , assigned incrementally or sequentially * random numbers , selected from a number space much larger than the maximum (or expected) number of objects to be identified. Although not really unique, some identifiers of this type may be appropriate for identifying objects in many practical applications and are, with abuse of language, still referred to as "unique" * names or codes allocated by choice which are forced to be unique by keeping a central registry such as the EPC Information Services .The above methods can be combined, hierarchically or singly, to create other generation schemes which guarantee uniqueness
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Chemical Structure
A CHEMICAL STRUCTURE determination includes a chemist\'s specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid. Molecular geometry refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together, and can be represented using structural formulae and by molecular models ; complete electronic structure descriptions include specifying the occupation of a molecule's molecular orbitals . Structure determination can be applied to a range of targets from very simple molecules (e.g., diatomic oxygen or nitrogen ), to very complex ones (e.g., such as of protein or DNA
DNA
). Theories of chemical structure were first developed by August Kekule , Archibald Scott Couper , and Aleksandr Butlerov , among others, from about 1858
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Crowdsourcing
CROWDSOURCING is a specific sourcing model in which individuals or organizations use contributions from Internet
Internet
users to obtain needed services or ideas. Crowdsourcing was coined in 2005 as a portmanteau of crowd and outsourcing . This mode of sourcing, which is to divide work between participants to achieve a cumulative result, was already successful prior to the digital age (i.e., "offline "). Crowdsourcing is distinguished from outsourcing in that the work can come from an undefined public (instead of being commissioned from a specific, named group) and in that crowdsourcing includes a mix of bottom-up and top-down processes. Advantages of using crowdsourcing may include improved costs, speed, quality, flexibility, scalability, or diversity
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Information Retrieval
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL (IR) is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Searches can be based on full-text or other content-based indexing. Information
Information
retrieval is the science of searching for information in a document, searching for documents themselves, and also searching for metadata that describe data, and for databases of texts, images or sounds. Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called information overload . Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals and other documents. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications
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Systematic Name
A SYSTEMATIC NAME is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance , out of a specific population or collection. Systematic names are usually part of a nomenclature . A SEMISYSTEMATIC NAME or SEMITRIVIAL NAME is a name that has at least one systematic part and at least one trivial part. Creating systematic names can be as simple as assigning a prefix or a number to each object (in which case they are a type of numbering scheme ), or as complex as encoding the complete structure of the object in the name. Many systems combine some information about the named object with an extra sequence number to make it into a unique identifier . Systematic names often co-exist with earlier common names assigned before the creation of any systematic naming system. For example, many common chemicals are still referred to by their common or trivial names, even by chemists
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Beta Release
A SOFTWARE RELEASE LIFE CYCLE is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software : ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Stages of development * 2.1 Pre-alpha * 2.2 Alpha * 2.3 Beta * 2.3.1 Open and closed beta * 2.4 Release candidate * 3 Release * 3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) * 3.2 General availability (GA) * 3.3 Release to web (RTW) * 4 Support * 4.1 End-of-life * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography HISTORYUsage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM
IBM
. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM
IBM
used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement
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SMILES
The SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR-INPUT LINE-ENTRY SYSTEM (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings . SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN
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