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Cashew
The CASHEW TREE ( Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew nut and the cashew apple. It can grow as high as 14 m (46 ft), but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 m (20 ft), has proved more profitable, with earlier maturity and higher yields. The species is originally native to northeastern Brazil. Portuguese colonists in Brazil
Brazil
began exporting cashew nuts as early as the 1550s. Major production of cashews occurs in Vietnam, Nigeria, India, and Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
. The cashew nut, often simply called a cashew, is widely consumed. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter . The shell of the cashew seed yields derivatives that can be used in many applications including lubricants, waterproofing, paints, and arms production, starting in World War II
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Corymb
CORYMB is a botanical term for an inflorescence with the flowers growing in such a fashion that the outermost are born on longer pedicels than the inner, bringing all flowers up to a common level. A cyme has a flattish top superficially resembling an umbel , and may have a branching structure similar to a panicle . Flowers in a corymb structure can either be parallel, or alternate, and form in either a convex, or flat form. Many species in the Maloideae, such as hawthorns and rowans, produce their flowers in corymbs. The Norway maple
Norway maple
and yerba maté are also examples of corymbs. * Racemose corymb * Iberis umbellata (racemose corymb) * Cymose corymb * Sambucus nigra (cymose corymb) REFERENCES This botany article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Petal
PETALS are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers . They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators . Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a COROLLA. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals , that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth . When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals . Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe
Aloe
and Tulipa . Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots , orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Panicle
A PANICLE is a much-branched inflorescence . Some authors distinguish it from a compound spike, by requiring that the flowers (and fruit ) be pedicellate . The branches of a panicle are often racemes . A panicle may have determinate or indeterminate growth. This type of inflorescence is largely characteristic of grasses such as oat and crabgrass , as well as other plants such as pistachio and mamoncillo . Botanists use the term paniculate in two ways: "having a true panicle inflorescence" as well as "having an inflorescence with the form but not necessarily the structure of a panicle". A corymb may have a paniculate branching structure, with the lower flowers having longer pedicels than the upper, thus giving a flattish top superficially resembling an umbel . Many species in the Maloideae , such as hawthorns and rowans , produce their flowers in corymbs
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a BLOOM or BLOSSOM , is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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Evergreen
In botany , an EVERGREEN is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season
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Allergen
An ALLERGEN is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body. Such reactions are called allergies . In technical terms, an allergen is an antigen capable of stimulating a type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals through Immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses. Most humans mount significant Immunoglobulin E responses only as a defense against parasitic infections . However, some individuals may respond to many common environmental antigens. This hereditary predisposition is called atopy . In atopic individuals, non-parasitic antigens stimulate inappropriate IgE production, leading to type I hypersensitivity. Sensitivities vary widely from one person (or other animal) to another. A very broad range of substances can be allergens to sensitive individuals
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Accessory Fruit
An ACCESSORY FRUIT (sometimes called false fruit, spurious fruit, pseudofruit, or pseudocarp) is a fruit in which some of the flesh is derived not from the ovary but from some adjacent tissue exterior to the carpel . Examples of accessory tissue are the receptacle of the strawberry , pineapple , common fig , and mulberry , and the calyx of Gaultheria procumbens
Gaultheria procumbens
or Syzygium jambos
Syzygium jambos
. Pomes , such as apples and pears , are also accessory fruits, with much of the fruit flesh derived from a hypanthium . Other example could be the anthocarps specific to the family Nyctaginaceae
Nyctaginaceae
, where most of the fruit comes from the perianth (floral whorls). Fruit
Fruit
with fleshy seeds, such as pomegranate or mamoncillo , are not considered to be accessory fruit
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Hypocarpium
This glossary of botanical terms is incomplete; you can help by expanding it: you can also help by adding illustrations that assist an understanding of the terms
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Toxin
A TOXIN (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: τοξικόν toxikon ) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919). Toxins can be small molecules , peptides , or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors . Toxins vary greatly in their toxicity , ranging from usually minor (such as a bee sting ) to almost immediately deadly (such as botulinum toxin )
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Portuguese People
5,000,000 (eligible for Portuguese citizenship) 45,000,000 (Portuguese ancestry) UNITED STATES 1,471,549 (Portuguese ancestry) VENEZUELA 1,300,000 (Portuguese ancestry) FRANCE 1,243,419 (Portuguese ancestry) CANADA 429,850 (Portuguese ancestry) SOUTH AFRICA 300,000 ANGOLA 300,000 SWITZERLAND 265,000 GERMANY 170,000 UNITED KINGDOM 140,000 SPAIN 126,651 LUXEMBOURG 96,500 GUYANA 50,000 (Portuguese ancestry) AUSTRALIA 46,519 MOZAMBIQUE 40,413 ARGENTINA 40,100 BELGIUM 38,000 CAPE VERDE (PORTUGUESE ANCESTRY) 22,318 COLOMBIA 836 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 800 30,822 ASIA 30,000 REST OF THE AMERICAS 24,776 REST OF AFRICA 8,965 LANGUAGES Languages of
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Irritation
IRRITATION, in biology and physiology , is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage. A stimulus or agent which induces the state of irritation is an IRRITANT. Irritants are typically thought of as chemical agents (for example phenol and capsaicin ) but mechanical, thermal (heat), and radiative stimuli (for example ultraviolet light or ionising radiations ) can also be irritants. Irritation
Irritation
also has non-clinical usages referring to bothersome physical or psychological pain or discomfort. Irritation
Irritation
can also be induced by some allergic response due to exposure of some allergens for example contact dermatitis, irritation of mucousal membranes and pruritus. Mucosal membrane is most common site of irritation because it contains secretory glands that release mucous which attracts the allergens due to its sticky nature
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Natural Phenol
In organic chemistry , PHENOLS, sometimes called PHENOLICS, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—O H ) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol , which is also called carbolic acid C 6H 5OH. Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. Phenol - the simplest of the phenols. Chemical structure of Salicylic acid the active metabolite of Aspirin . Chemical structure of Aloe emodin a diphenol. Quercetin , a typical flavonoid , is a polyphenol . Tannic acid , a typical polyphenol of indeterminate structure. Lignin , is around 25% of the composition of wood . Note this structure is repeated many times in each lignin molecule. Synonyms are arenols or aryl alcohols
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Pedicel (botany)
A PEDICEL is a stem that attaches a single flower to the inflorescence . In the absence of a pedicel, the flowers are described as sessile . Pedicel is also applied to the stem of the infructescence . The stem or branch from the main stem of the inflorescence that holds a group of pedicels is called a peduncle . In Halloween types of pumpkin or squash plants, the shape of the pedicel has received particular attention because plant breeders are trying to optimize the size and shape of the pedicel for the best "lid" for a "jack-o\'-lantern ". SEE ALSO * Sessile * Scape * Terminology for Asteraceae REFERENCES * ^ Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press
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Seed
A SEED is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes , including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule , after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns , mosses and liverworts , which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates . The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown , e.g. "seed" potatoes , "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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