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Camille Desmoulins
LUCIE SIMPLICE CAMILLE BENOîT DESMOULINS (French: ; 2 March 1760 – 5 April 1794), a journalist and politician, played an important role in the French Revolution
French Revolution
. He was a childhood friend of Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
and a close friend and political ally of Georges Danton
Georges Danton
, who were influential figures in the French Revolution. Desmoulins was tried and executed alongside Danton when the Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
reacted against Dantonist opposition. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 July 1789 * 3 Journalism * 4 Political career and downfall * 5 Trial and execution * 6 Family * 7 In popular culture * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References EARLY LIFEDesmoulins was born at Guise , Aisne
Aisne
, in Picardy
Picardy

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Epigraph (literature)
In literature , an EPIGRAPH is a phrase, quotation , or poem that is set at the beginning of a document or component. The epigraph may serve as a preface, as a summary, as a counter-example, or to link the work to a wider literary canon , either to invite comparison or to enlist a conventional context. CONTENTS* 1 Examples * 1.1 Fictional quotations * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links EXAMPLES * The long quotation from Dante 's Inferno that prefaces T. S. Eliot 's " The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock " is part of a speech by one of the damned in Dante's Hell. Linking it to the monologue which forms Eliot's poem adds a comment and a dimension to Prufrock's confession. The epigraph to Eliot's Gerontion is a quotation from Shakespeare 's Measure for Measure
Measure for Measure

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Clergy
CLERGY are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions . The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the terms used for individual clergy are cleric, clergyman, clergywoman, clergyperson and churchman. In Christianity
Christianity
the specific names and roles of clergy vary by denomination and there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons , priests , bishops , preachers , pastors , ministers and the Pope
Pope
. In Islam
Islam
, a religious leader is often known formally or informally as an imam , mufti , mullah or ayatollah . In Jewish tradition, a religious leader is often a rabbi or hazzan (cantor)
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Palace Of Versailles
The PALACE OF VERSAILLES, CHâTEAU DE VERSAILLES, or simply VERSAILLES (English: /vɛərˈsaɪ/ vair-SY or /vərˈsaɪ/ vər-SY ; French: ), is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. It is now open as a museum, and a very popular tourist attraction. When the château was built, Versailles was a small village dating from the 11th century; today, however, it is a wealthy suburb of Paris , some 20 kilometres (12 miles) southwest of the centre of the French capital. Versailles was the seat of political power in the Kingdom of France
France
from 1682, when King Louis XIV moved the royal court from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789, within three months after the beginning of the French Revolution . Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime
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Gospel Of John
The GOSPEL ACCORDING TO JOHN (Greek : Τὸ κατὰ Ἰωάννην εὐαγγέλιον, translit. To kata Iōánnēn euangélion; also called the GOSPEL OF JOHN, the FOURTH GOSPEL, or simply JOHN) is one of the four canonical gospels in the New Testament
New Testament
. It traditionally appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels of Matthew , Mark , and Luke . Although the Gospel of John is anonymous, Christian tradition historically has attributed it to John the Apostle
John the Apostle
, son of Zebedee and one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles . The gospel is so closely related in style and content to the three surviving Johannine epistles that commentators treat the four books, along with the Book
Book
of Revelation , as a single corpus of Johannine literature , albeit not necessarily written by the same author. C. K
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Stuttering
STUTTERING, also known as STAMMERING, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels . According to Watkins et al., stuttering is a disorder of "selection, initiation, and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production." For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. The term "stuttering" covers a wide range of severity, encompassing barely perceptible impediments that are largely cosmetic to severe symptoms that effectively prevent oral communication
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Ah! ça Ira
"ÇA IRA" (French: "it'll be fine") is an emblematic song of the French Revolution
French Revolution
, first heard in May 1790. It underwent several changes in wording, all of which used the title words as part of the refrain . CONTENTS * 1 Original version * 2 Sans-culotte version * 3 Post-revolutionary use * 4 Modern adaptations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ORIGINAL VERSIONThe author of the original words "Ah! ça ira, ça ira, ça ira" was a former soldier by the name of Ladré who made a living as a street singer. The music is a popular contredanse air called le Carillon national, and was composed by Bécourt, a violinist (according to other sources: side drum player) of the théâtre Beaujolais. The queen Marie Antoinette herself is said to have often played the music on her harpsichord
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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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King Of France
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870. Sometimes included as "kings of France" are the kings of the Franks of the Merovingian dynasty , which ruled from 486 until 751, and of the Carolingians , who ruled until 987 (with some interruptions). The Capetian dynasty , the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet , included the first rulers to adopt the title of KING OF FRANCE for the first time with Philip II (r. 1180–1223). The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (until 1848)
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Divine Right Of Kings
The DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, DIVINE RIGHT, or GOD\'S MANDATE is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy . It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God
God
. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy , or any other estate of the realm . It implies that only God
God
can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God
God
and may constitute a sacrilegious act. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God
God
", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch
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Joseph Boze
JOSEPH BOZE (7 February 1746 – 25 January 1826) was a French portrait and miniature painter born at Les Martigues ( Bouches-du-Rhône ). He painted the portraits of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette , and, being devoted to the court and the royal family, narrowly escaped the guillotine . He was thrown into prison, but the fall of Robespierre set him at liberty, and he came to England, where he remained until the restoration . He died in Paris in 1826. His own portrait is among his drawings in the Louvre
Louvre

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Les Invalides
LES INVALIDES (French pronunciation: ​ ), commonly known as HôTEL NATIONAL DES INVALIDES (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as HôTEL DES INVALIDES, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France , as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans , the building's original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l\'Armée , the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs , and the Musée d\'Histoire Contemporaine , as well as the Dôme des Invalides, a large church with the tombs of some of France's war heroes, most notably Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte
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St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The ST. BARTHOLOMEW\'S DAY MASSACRE (French : Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence , directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants ) during the French Wars of Religion . Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de\' Medici , the mother of King Charles IX , the massacre took place a few days after the wedding day (18 August) of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). Many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris to attend the wedding. The massacre began in the night of 23–24 August 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle ), two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny , the military and political leader of the Huguenots
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Coffeehouse
A COFFEEHOUSE, COFFEE SHOP or CAFé (sometimes spelled CAFE) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee , related coffee beverages (e.g., café latte , cappuccino , espresso ), tea , and other hot beverages. Some coffeehouses also serve cold beverages such as iced coffee and iced tea . Many cafés also serve some type of food, such as light snacks, muffins or pastries . Coffeehouses range from owner-operated small businesses to large multinational corporations. In continental Europe, cafés often serve alcoholic beverages and light food, but elsewhere the term "café" may also refer to a tea room , "greasy spoon " (a small and inexpensive restaurant, colloquially called a "caff"), transport café , or other casual eating and drinking place. A coffeehouse may share some of the same characteristics of a bar or restaurant , but it is different from a cafeteria
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Palais Royal
The PALAIS-ROYAL (French pronunciation: ​ ), originally called the PALAIS-CARDINAL, is a palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris . The screened entrance court faces the Place du Palais-Royal, opposite the Louvre
Louvre
. The larger inner courtyard, the Cour d'Honneur, has since 1986 contained Daniel Buren 's site-specific art piece Les Deux Plateaux , known as Les Colonnes de Buren. In 1830 the Cour d'Honneur was enclosed to the north by what was probably the most famous of Paris's covered arcades, the Galerie d'Orléans. Demolished in the 1930s, its flanking rows of columns still stand between the Cour d'Honneur and the popular Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
Gardens
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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