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Caffeine
CAFFEINE is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class . It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug . Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. The most prominent is that it reversibly blocks the action of adenosine on its receptor and consequently prevents the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine
Caffeine
also stimulates certain portions of the autonomic nervous system . Caffeine
Caffeine
is a bitter, white crystalline purine , a methylxanthine alkaloid , and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
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Guide To Pharmacology
The IUPHAR/BPS GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY is an open-access website, acting as a portal to information on the biological targets of licensed drugs and other small molecules. The Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (with GtoPdb being the standard abbreviation) is developed as a joint venture between the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS). This replaces and expands upon the original 2009 IUPHAR Database (standard abbreviation IUPHAR-DB) . The Guide to PHARMACOLOGY aims to provide a concise overview of all pharmacological targets, accessible to all members of the scientific and clinical communities and the interested public, with links to details on a selected set of targets. The information featured includes pharmacological data, target and gene nomenclature, as well as curated chemical information for ligands. Overviews and commentaries on each target family are included, with links to key references
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DrugBank
The DRUGBANK database is a comprehensive, freely accessible, online database containing information on drugs and drug targets. As both a bioinformatics and a cheminformatics resource, DrugBank
DrugBank
combines detailed drug (i.e. chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e. sequence, structure, and pathway) information. Because of its broad scope, comprehensive referencing and unusually detailed data descriptions, DrugBank
DrugBank
is more akin to a drug encyclopedia than a drug database. As a result, links to DrugBank are maintained for nearly all drugs listed in. DrugBank
DrugBank
is widely used by the drug industry, medicinal chemists, pharmacists , physicians , students and the general public. Its extensive drug and drug-target data has enabled the discovery and repurposing of a number of existing drugs to treat rare and newly identified illnesses
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ChemSpider
CHEMSPIDER is a database of chemicals . ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Database * 2 Crowdsourcing * 3 Searching * 4 Chemistry document mark-up * 5 History * 6 Services * 6.1 SyntheticPages * 6.2 Open PHACTS * 7 See also * 8 References DATABASEThe database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including: * EPA DSSTox * U.S
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Unique Ingredient Identifier
The UNIQUE INGREDIENT IDENTIFIER (UNII) is a non-proprietary, free, unique, unambiguous, non-semantic, alphanumeric identifier linked to a substance's molecular structure or descriptive information by the Substance Registration System (SRS) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The SRS is used to generate permanent, unique identifiers for substances in regulated products, such as ingredients in drug and biologic products. The SRS uses molecular structure and descriptive information to define a substance and generate the UNII. The primary means for defining a substance is by its molecular structure as represented on a two-dimensional plane. When a molecular structure is not available (e.g., botanicals), the UNII is defined by descriptive information. The procedures and management of the SRS is provided by the SRS Board which includes experts from both FDA and the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE . There are two main areas: * IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry (Red Book) * IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry (Blue Book) This chemistry -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Metabolite
METABOLITES are the intermediates and products of metabolism . The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules . Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes , catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments , odorants , and pheromones ). A PRIMARY METABOLITE is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction. Ethylene
Ethylene
is an example of a primary metabolite produced in large-scale by industrial microbiology . A secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments such as resins and terpenes etc. Some antibiotics use primary metabolites as precursors, such as actinomycin which is created from the primary metabolite, tryptophan
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Onset Of Action
ONSET OF ACTION is the duration of time it takes for a drug 's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration , it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration . There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation , dosage , and the patient receiving the drug. EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION ROUTE ON THE ONSET OF ACTIONA drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream
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Biological Half-life
The BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE or TERMINAL HALF-LIFE of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite , drug , signalling molecule , radioactive nuclide , or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Typically, this refers to the body's cleansing through the function of kidneys and liver in addition to excretion functions to eliminate a substance from the body. In a medical context, half-life may also describe the time it takes for the blood plasma concentration of a substance to halve (plasma half-life) its steady-state. The relationship between the biological and plasma half-lives of a substance can be complex depending on the substance in question, due to factors including accumulation in tissues (protein binding ), active metabolites, and receptor interactions
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Excretion
EXCRETION is the process by which metabolic wastes and other non-useful materials, such as faeces, are eliminated from an organism . In vertebrates this is primarily carried out by the lungs , kidneys and skin . This is in contrast with secretion , where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell . Excretion
Excretion
is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in mammals urine is expelled through the urethra , which is part of the excretory system . In unicellular organisms , waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. Green plants produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis. Oxygen
Oxygen
is a by product generated during photosynthesis , and exits through stomata , root cell walls, and other routes
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KEGG
KEGG
KEGG
(KYOTO ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENES AND GENOMES) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes , biological pathways , diseases , drugs , and chemical substances . KEGG
KEGG
is utilized for bioinformatics research and education, including data analysis in genomics , metagenomics , metabolomics and other omics studies, modeling and simulation in systems biology , and translational research in drug development
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ChEBI
CHEMICAL ENTITIES OF BIOLOGICAL INTEREST, also known as CHEBI, is a database and ontology of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds, that is part of the Open Biomedical Ontologies effort. The term "molecular entity" refers to any "constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom , molecule , ion , ion pair , radical , radical ion , complex , conformer , etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity". The molecular entities in question are either products of nature or synthetic products which have potential bioactivity. Molecules directly encoded by the genome, such as nucleic acids , proteins and peptides derived from proteins by proteolytic cleavage, are not as a rule included in ChEBI
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Molar Mass
In chemistry , the MOLAR MASS M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound ) divided by the amount of substance . The base SI unit for molar mass is kg /mol . However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. As an example, the molar mass of water: M(H2O) ≈ 6998180148800000000♠18.01488 g/mol
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JSmol
JMOL is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions . Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry . It is written in the programming language Java , so it can run on the operating systems Windows , macOS , Linux
Linux
, and Unix , if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna . A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models , space-filling models , ribbon diagrams , etc
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Density
The DENSITY, or more precisely, the VOLUMETRIC MASS DENSITY, of a substance is its mass per unit volume . The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho ), although the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: = m V {displaystyle rho ={frac {m}{V}}} where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume , although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight . For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration . Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy , purity and packaging
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