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CP/M
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers,[3][4][5] is a mass-market operating system created for Intel
Intel
8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall
Gary Kildall
of Digital Research, Inc
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BSD Licenses
BSD licenses are a family of permissive free software licenses, imposing minimal restrictions on the use and redistribution of covered software. This is in contrast to copyleft licenses, which have reciprocity share-alike requirements. The original BSD license was used for its namesake, the Berkeley Software Distribution
Berkeley Software Distribution
(BSD), a Unix-like
Unix-like
operating system. The original version has since been revised and its descendants are more properly termed modified BSD licenses. BSD is both a license and a class of license (generally referred to as BSD-like). The modified BSD license (in wide use today) is very similar to the license originally used for the BSD version of Unix. The BSD license is a simple license that merely requires that all code licensed under the BSD license be licensed under the BSD license if redistributed in source code format
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Bootstrapping (computing)
In general, bootstrapping usually refers to a self-starting process that is supposed to proceed without external input
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Kilobyte
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) defines the prefix kilo as 1000 (103); per this definition, one kilobyte is 1000 bytes.[1] The internationally recommended unit symbol for the kilobyte is kB.[1] In some areas of information technology, particularly in reference to digital memory capacity, kilobyte instead denotes 1024 (210) bytes. This arises from the powers-of-two sizing common to memory circuit design. In this context, the symbols K and KB are often used.Contents1 Definitions and usage1.1 1000 bytes 1.2 1024 bytes1.2.1 Kibibyte2 Examples 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesDefinitions and usage[edit] 1000 bytes[edit] In the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) the prefix kilo means 1000 (103); therefore, one kilobyte is 1000 bytes
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16-bit Processor
In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits (2 octets) wide. Also, 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The signed range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits is −32,768 (−1 × 215) through 32,767 (215 − 1); the unsigned range is 0 through 65,535 (216 − 1). Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16-bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KB (65,536 bytes) of byte-addressable memory. If a system uses segmentation with 16-bit segment offsets, more can be accessed.Contents1 16-bit architecture1.1 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 and Intel 386SX2 Intel 16-bit memory models 3 16-bit application 4 List of 16-bit CPUs 5 See also 6 References16-bit architecture[edit] The MIT Whirlwind (c
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Motorola 68000
The Motorola
Motorola
68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m 68k
68k
or Motorola
Motorola
68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/ 32-bit
32-bit
CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit
32-bit
instruction set, with 32-bit
32-bit
registers and 32-bit
32-bit
internal data bus, but with a 16-bit main ALU and a 16-bit external data bus,[1] designed and marketed by Motorola
Motorola
Semiconductor Products Sector
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Proprietary Software
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code,[1] but sometimes patent rights.[2]Contents1 Software becoming proprietary 2 Legal basis2.1 Limitations3 Exclusive rights3.1 Use of the software 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code 3.3 Redistribution4 Interoperability with software and hardware4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols 4.2 Proprietary APIs 4.3 Vendor lock-in 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations5 Abandonment by owners 6 Formerly open-source software 7 Pricing and economics 8 Examples 9 See also 10 ReferencesSoftware becoming proprietary[edit] Until the late 1960
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Altair 8800
The Altair
Altair
8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by MITS and based on the Intel 8080
Intel 8080
CPU.[1] Interest grew quickly after it was featured on the cover of the January 1975 issue (published in late November 1974)[2] of Popular Electronics, and was sold by mail order through advertisements there, in Radio-Electronics, and in other hobbyist magazines
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Random Access Memory
Random-access memory
Random-access memory
(RAM /ræm/) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. Usually more than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, and RAM devices often have multiple data lines and are said to be "8-bit" or "16-bit", etc
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Hacker (hobbyist)
The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes.[1] The act of engaging in activities (such as programming or other media[2]) in a spirit of playfulness and exploration is termed "hacking". However, the defining characteristic of a hacker is not the activities performed themselves (e.g. programming), but the manner in which it is done[3] and whether it is something exciting and meaningful.[2] Activities of playful cleverness can be said to have "hack value" and therefore the term "hacks" came about,[3] with early examples including pranks at MIT
MIT
done by students to demonstrate their technical aptitude and cleverness
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Software Release Life Cycle
A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software.Contents1 History 2 Stages of development2.1 Pre-alpha 2.2 Alpha 2.3 Beta2.3.1 Open and closed beta2.4 Release candidate3 Release3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) 3.2 General availability (GA) 3.3 Release to web (RTW)4 Support4.1 End-of-life5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] Usage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. "B" test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured
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Open Source
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.[1][2] A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology,[3] and open-source drug discovery.[4][5] Open source
Open source
promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.[6][7] Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms
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Closed Source
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code,[1] but sometimes patent rights.[2]Contents1 Software becoming proprietary 2 Legal basis2.1 Limitations3 Exclusive rights3.1 Use of the software 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code 3.3 Redistribution4 Interoperability with software and hardware4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols 4.2 Proprietary APIs 4.3 Vendor lock-in 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations5 Abandonment by owners 6 Formerly open-source software 7 Pricing and economics 8 Examples 9 See also 10 ReferencesSoftware becoming proprietary[edit] Until the late 1960
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Read Only Memory
Read-only memory
Read-only memory
(ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly, with difficulty, or not at all, so it is mainly used to store firmware (software that is closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely to need frequent updates) or application software in plug-in cartridges. Strictly, read-only memory refers to memory that is hard-wired, such as diode matrix and the later mask ROM (MROM), which cannot be changed after manufacture. Although discrete circuits can be altered in principle, integrated circuits (ICs) cannot, and are useless if the data is bad or requires an update. That such memory can never be changed is a disadvantage in many applications, as bugs and security issues cannot be fixed, and new features cannot be added. More recently, ROM has come to include memory that is read-only in normal operation, but can still be reprogrammed in some way
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Programming Language
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output. Programming languages generally consist of instructions for a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that implement specific algorithms. The earliest known programmable machine that preceded the invention of the digital computer was the automatic flute player described in the 9th century by the brothers Musa in Baghdad, during the Islamic Golden Age.[1] From the early 1800s, "programs" were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms, music boxes and player pianos.[2] Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, and many more still are being created every year
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User Group
A users' group (also user's group or user group) is a type of club focused on the use of a particular technology, usually (but not always) computer-related. Users' groups started in the early days of mainframe computers, as a way to share sometimes hard-won knowledge and useful software, usually written by end users independently of the vendor-supplied programming efforts. SHARE, a user group originated by aerospace industry corporate users of IBM
IBM
mainframe computers, was founded in 1955 and is the oldest computer user group still active. DECUS, the DEC User's Society, was founded in 1961 and its descendant organization, Connect Worldwide, still operates. The Computer
Computer
Measurement Group (CMG) was founded in 1974 by systems professionals with a common interest in (mainframe) capacity management, and continues today with a much broader mission
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