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CC-BY
A CREATIVE COMMONS (CC) LICENSE is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created. CC provides an author flexibility (for example, they might choose to allow only non-commercial uses of his/her own work) and protects the people who use or redistribute an author's work from concerns of copyright infringement as long as they abide by the conditions that are specified in the license by which the author distributes the work. There are several types of CC licenses. The licenses differ by several combinations that condition the terms of distribution. They were initially released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons
Creative Commons
, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001. There have also been five versions of the suite of licenses, numbered 1.0 through 4.0
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Open Content
{{redirectOpen licencethe French licence Creative Commons license
Creative Commons license
, while the paper in his right hand explains that the image is open content.]] OPEN CONTENT is a neologism coined by David Wiley in 1998 which describes a creative work that others can copy or modify freely, without asking for permission . The term evokes the related concept of open source software . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 "Open Content" definition * 3 Open access
Open access
* 4 Open content
Open content
and education * 4.1 Textbooks * 5 Licenses * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYOriginally, the Open content
Open content
concept and term was evangelized via the Open Content Project by David A
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Jurisdictions
JURISDICTION (from the Latin
Latin
ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In federations like the U.S., areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state , and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area to which such authority applies, e.g. the court has jurisdiction over all of Colorado. The legal term refers only to the granted authority, not to a geographical area. Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
draws its substance from public international law , conflict of laws , constitutional law , and the powers of the executive and legislative branches of government to allocate resources to best serve the needs of society
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Permissive License
A PERMISSIVE SOFTWARE LICENSE, sometimes also called BSD-LIKE or BSD-STYLE license, is a free software software licence with minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed. Examples include the MIT Licence , BSD licences , Apple Public Source License and the Apache licence . As of 2016, the most popular free software license is the permissive MIT license. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Other terms * 2.1 Copycenter * 2.2 Copyfree
Copyfree
* 3 Comparison to public domain * 4 Comparison to copyleft * 5 License compatibility * 6 Reception and adoption * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DEFINITIONSThe Open Source Initiative defines a permissive software license as a "non-copyleft license"
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Wikimedia Deutschland
WIKIMEDIA CHAPTERS are national or sub-national not-for-profit organisations created to promote the interests of Wikimedia projects locally. Chapters are legally independent of the Wikimedia Foundation , entering into a "Chapters Agreement" with the Foundation following acceptance by the Affiliations Committee (formerly known as "Chapters Committee"), and have no control over Foundation websites. They organise regional conferences, outreach and global events such as Wikimania . As of January 2015 there were 41 recognised Wikimedia chapters
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Public Domain Mark
PUBLIC DOMAIN MARK (PDM) is a symbol used to indicate that a work is free of known copyright restrictions and therefore in the public domain . It is analogous to the copyright symbol , which is commonly used to indicate as copyright notice that a work is copyrighted. The Public Domain Mark
Public Domain Mark
was developed by Creative Commons
Creative Commons
. REFERENCES * ^ " Creative Commons
Creative Commons
announces the Public Domain Mark". The H Open. The H
The H
. 2010-10-12. Retrieved 2010-10-12. * ^ Diane Peters (2010-10-11). "Improving Access to the Public Domain: the Public Domain Mark". Creative Commons
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Creative Commons Jurisdiction Ports
CREATIVE COMMONS , since 2011, has created many "ports " (adaptions) of its licenses to suit different copyright legislations around the world. CONTENTS * 1 Work * 2 Country teams * 2.1 Jurisdictions covered * 2.2 Jurisdictions for which licenses are in development * 2.3 Jurisdictions for which development is planned * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links WORKThe original non-localized Creative Commons licenses were written with the US legal system in mind, hence the wording of the licenses could be incompatible within different local legislations and render the licenses unenforceable in various jurisdictions . To address this issue, Creative Commons has ported the various licenses to accommodate local copyright and private law. The porting process involves both linguistically translating the licenses and legally adapting them to particular jurisdictions
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Open Definition
THE OPEN DEFINITION is a document published by the Open Knowledge Foundation (now Open Knowledge International (OKI)), to define openness in relation to data and content . It specifies what licences for such material may and may not stipulate, in order to be considered open licences . The definition was derived from the Open Source Definition . OKI summarise the document as: Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose (subject, at most, to requirements that preserve provenance and openness). The latest form of the document, published in November 2015, is version 2.1. The use of language in the document is conformant with RFC 2119 . The document is available under a Creative Commons
Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International License , which itself meets the Open Definition
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Creative Commons
CREATIVE COMMONS (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright -licenses known as Creative Commons
Commons
licenses free of charge to the public. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons
Commons
license. Creative Commons
Commons
licenses do not replace copyright, but are based upon it
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LGPL
The GNU
GNU
LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation
Free Software Foundation
(FSF). The license allows developers and companies to use and integrate software released under the LGPL into their own (even proprietary ) software without being required by the terms of a strong copyleft license to release the source code of their own components. The license only requires software under the LGPL be modifiable by end users via source code availability. For proprietary software, code under the LGPL is usually used in the form of a shared library , so that there is a clear separation between the proprietary and LGPL components. The LGPL is primarily used for software libraries , although it is also used by some stand-alone applications
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Gnu General Public License
The GNU
GNU
GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE ( GNU
GNU
GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license , which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software. The license was originally written by Richard Stallman
Richard Stallman
of the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project
GNU Project
, and grants the recipients of a computer program the rights of the Free Software Definition . The GPL is a copyleft license, which means that derivative work can only be distributed under the same license terms. This is in distinction to permissive free software licenses , of which the BSD licenses and the MIT License are widely used examples. GPL was the first copyleft license for general use. Historically, the GPL license family has been one of the most popular software licenses in the free and open-source software domain
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Waiver
A WAIVER is the voluntary relinquishment or surrender of some known right or privilege . Regulatory agencies or governments may issue waivers to exempt companies from certain regulations. For example, a United States law restricted the size of banks, but when banks exceeded these sizes, they obtained waivers. In another example, the United States federal government may issue waivers to individual states so that they may provide Medicaid in different ways than the law typically requires. While a waiver is often in writing, sometimes a person's words can also be used as a counteract to a waiver. An example of a written waiver is a disclaimer , which becomes a waiver when accepted. When the right to hold a person liable through a lawsuit is waived, the waiver may be called an exculpatory clause , liability waiver , legal release , or hold harmless clause
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Public Domain Equivalent License
PUBLIC DOMAIN EQUIVALENT LICENSE are licenses that grant public-domain -like rights or/and act as waivers . They are used to make copyrighted works usable by anyone without conditions, while avoiding the complexities of attribution or license compatibility that occur with other licenses. The extremely permissive terms of public domain equivalent licenses meet the definition of copyfree licenses. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Licenses * 3 Reception * 4 See also * 5 Footnotes * 6 References DESCRIPTIONNo permission or license is required for a work truly in the public domain, such as one with an expired copyright; such a work may be copied at will. Public domain
Public domain
equivalent licenses exist because some legal jurisdictions do not provide for authors to voluntarily place their work in the public domain, but do allow them to grant arbitrarily broad rights in the work to the public
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Public Domain Software
PUBLIC-DOMAIN SOFTWARE is software that has been placed in the public domain : in other words, there is absolutely no ownership such as copyright , trademark , or patent . Software
Software
in the public domain can be modified, distributed, or sold even without any attribution by anyone; this is unlike the common case of software under exclusive copyright , where software licenses grant limited usage rights. Under the Berne Convention , which most countries have signed, an author automatically obtains the exclusive copyright to anything they have written, and local law may similarly grant copyright, patent, or trademark rights by default. The Berne Convention also covers programs. Therefore, a program is automatically subject to a copyright, and if it is to be placed in the public domain, the author must explicitly disclaim the copyright and other rights on it in some way, e.g. by a waiver statement
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Bus Stop
BUS STOP is a designated place where buses stop for passengers to board or alight from a bus . The construction of bus stops tends to reflect the level of usage, where stops at busy locations may have shelters , seating, and possibly electronic passenger information systems ; less busy stops may use a simple pole and flag to mark the location. Bus
Bus
stops are, in some locations, clustered together into transport hubs allowing interchange between routes from nearby stops and with other public transport modes to maximize convenience
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Advertising Campaign
An ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN is a series of advertisement message that share a single idea and theme which make up an ] (IMC). Advertising campaigns utilize diverse media channels over a particular time frame and are often mandated to be rationally defined.as The campaign theme is the central message that will be received in the promotional activities and is the prime focus of advertising campaign as it sets the motif for the series of multifarious individual advertisements and other marketing communications that will be used. The campaign themes are usually produced with the objective of being used for a significant period but many of them are temporal due to factors like being not effective or market conditions,competition and marketing mix . Advertising campaigns are built to accomplish a particular objective or a set of objectives. Such objectives usually include establishing a brand, raising brand awareness, aggrandizing the rate of conversions/sales
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